Fiber Optic Center Glossary
There are currently 479 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
The C-band is the “conventional” DWDM transmission band, occupying the 1530 to 1565 nm wavelength range, as specified by the ITU-T G.692. Most EDFAs operate in the C-band.
A 30-MHz personal-communications-services carrier serving a basic trading area in the 1895-to-1910-MHz range paired with 1975 to 1990 MHz.
The final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is relatively insoluble and infusible. Certain thermosetting resins in a fully cured adhesive layer are in this stage.
1)Either a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).__2)A group of individually insulated conductors in twisted or parallel configuration under a common sheath.__3) One or more conductors within a protective sheath. See also coaxial cable, twisted pairs cable
Cable Bend Radius
The radius that a fiber can be bent before risking increased attenuation or fiber breaks.
A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle; A mechanical clamp attached to the cable side of the connector to support the cable or wire bundle, provide strain relief and absorb vibration and shock otherwise transmitted by the cable to the contact/wire connection. (MIL-STD)
Cable Clamp Adapter
A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp.
Cable Core Binder
A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together.
The ratio of cable installed into a conduit/trunking against the theoretical maximum capacity of the conduit/trunking.
The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices in a cable to make the finished cable round.
A string of cables and/or wires which transmit informational signals or operating currents (energy). The cables are bound together by clamps, cable ties, cable lacing, sleeves, electrical tape, conduit, a weave of extruded string, or a combination thereof.
The protective outer covering of wire or optical cable. Common materials include polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Teflon (plenum).
Cable Plant, Fiber Optic
The combination of fiber optic cable sections, connectors and splices forming the optical path between two terminal devices.
The vertical or horizontal supports, usually made of aluminum or steel, that are attached to a ceiling or wall. Cables are laid in and fastened to the rack. Sometimes called trays.
An assembly of one or more conductors within an enveloping sheath, constructed so as to permit use of the conductors singly or in groups.
Cable Sealing Clamp
A device consisting of a gland nut and sealing member designed to seal around a single jacket cable. (MIL-STD)
A covering over the optical fiber or conductor assembly that may include one or more metallic members, strength members or jackets.
Cable Sheilding Clamp
A device consisting of a sealing member and cable support designed to terminate the screen (shield) of an electrical cable. (MIL-STD)
A conductive layer of material located just under the cable’s outer sheath which is designed to increase the cable’s immunity to outside electrical noise interference. It may be constructed of metal foil or braided strands.
A ladder, trough, solid-bottom or channel raceway system intended for, but not limited to, the support of telecommunications media (i.e., cable).
Compression molding machine used to repair cable jacketing that has had apart removed for splicing, for adding connectors or other devices, or for replacing damaged sections.
System for direct burial in which a flexible conduit is extruded over electrical cables for a single pre-assembled unit.
Cable-Laid Wire Rope
A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope
A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle.
1) A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis separated by a dielectric. 2) A cable in the form of a central wire surrounded by a conductor tubing or sheathing that serves as shield and return.
1) Any cable with two smooth or corrugated but essentially flat surfaces. 2) Two or more parallel, round or flat, conductors that are contained in the insulating base material.
Cable, Flat, Margin
The distance between the reference edge of a flat cable and athe nearest edge of the first conductor.
1) A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held by adhesive film laminate. 2) A flat cable with round conductors.
Cable, Star Quad
A multi-core radio or television relay cable in which the conductors are arranged in quads and each quad consists of four conductors twisted together, the diagonally opposite conductors constituting a pair circuit. Also known as spiral four cable.
Cable/Harness Outdoor Use
Outdoor Use Cables/Harnesses: Product expected to withstand elements of wheather.
1) A combination of all cables, wire, cords and connecting hardware; 2) Twisting together two or more insulated conductors by machine to form a cable. In fiber optics, a method by which a group or bundle of fibers is mechanically assembled. 3) A system of telecommunications cables, cords and connecting hardware that can support the connection of information technology equipment. The twisting together of two or more insulated conductors to form an element.
Used in formulas for calculating the overall diameter of cable. D=fd where D=cable diameter, f=factor, and d=diameter of one conductor.
The building and grounds of a complex (i.e. a university, college, industrial park or military establishment). A premises containing more than one building adjacent or near to one another.
Campus Backbone Cable
The communications cable that is part of the Campus Backbone Subsystem and runs between building. There are four methods of installing campus backbone cable: in-conduit (in underground conduit), direct-buried (in trenches), aerial (on poles), and in-tunnel (in stream tunnels). A cable that connects the campus distributor to the building backbone distributor(s). Campus backbone cables may also connect building cabling distributors directly.
Campus Cable Entrance
The point at which Campus Backbone Subsystem cabling (aerial, direct-buried, or underground) enters a building.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
A non-profit independent organization which operates a listing service for electrical and electronic materials and equipment. The Canadian counterpart of the Underwriters Laboratories.
1)Storage of electrically separated charges between two plates having different potentials. The value depends largely on the surface area of the plates and the distance between them.__2)That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics which permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. Its value is expressed as the ratio of a quantity of electricity to a potential difference, in farads (microfarads). A capacitance value is always positive.
Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them.
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
The capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, short circuited to ground.
The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of a capacitor, cable or circuit. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/6.28fC where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads.
The inequalities of the capacitances of the wires of a telephone circuit to other wires or to earth which will produce interference. Various forms of unbalance arise according to the circuits concerned in the measurement,
Capacitance Unbalance to Ground
An inequality of capacitance between the g round capacitance of the conductors of a pair which results in a pickup of external source energy, usually from power transmission lines.
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
The capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, short circuited to ground.
Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the capacitance between them.
Capacitive Reactance (Xc)
The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of the cable or circuit. Measured in ohms.
Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. The capacitance is determined by the area of the surfaces, type of dielectric and spacing between the conducting surfaces.
The phenomenon of liquid rising in a small interstice due to surface tension. The effect of surface tension that draws a liquid into a small opening.
The electromagnetic wave frequency selected to transmit information. Optical carrier frequency is from the infrared, visible range or ultraviolet spectrum areas.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) used by LocalTalk networks. Unlike CSMA/CD, in this method the sending node requests permission to send from communications. It defines protocols for user or applications programs.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Network access method in which nodes contend for the right to send data. If two or more nodes attempt to transmit at the same time, they abort their transmission until a random time period of microseconds has transpired and then attempt to resend.
A continuous signal, upon which is modulated the data or other signal that is to be transmitted.
Carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)
A quantification of analog system noise. The ratio, expressed in decibels, of the level of the carrier to that of the noise in the receiver bandwidth before any nonlinear process such as amplitude limiting and detection takes place.
An aqueous colloidal dispersion of casein that may be prepared with or without heat, may contain modifiers, inhibitors, and secondary binders to provide specific adhesive properties, and includes a subclass, usually identified as casein glue, that is based on a dry blend of casein, lime, and sodium salts, mixed with water and prepared without heat.
A reactive material added to accelerate adhesive drying. Substance added in small quantities to promote a reaction, while remaining unchanged itself.
CATEGORY 3 (CAT 3)
Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3 or station wire, and less commonly known as VG or Voice-grade (as, for example, in 100BaseVG), is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable used in telephone wiring.
CATEGORY 4 (Cat 4)
Category 4, commonly known as Cat 4, is a cable that consists of four unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) copper wires with a data rate of 16 Mbit/s and performance of up to 20 MHz. It is used in telephone networks which can transmit voice and data up to 16 Mbit/s.
CATEGORY 5 (CAT 5)
Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video. This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.
CATEGORY 5e (CAT 5e)
Category 5e specification improves upon the category 5 specification by tightening some crosstalk specifications and introducing new crosstalk specifications that were not present in the original category 5 specification. The bandwidth of category 5 and 5e is the same (100 MHz) and the physical cable construction is the same, and the reality is that most Cat5 cables meet Cat5e specifications, though it is not tested or certified as such
CATEGORY 6 (CAT 6)
Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 6, is a standardized cable for Gigabit Ethernet and other network physical layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Compared with Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Cat 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise.
CATEGORY 7 (CAT 7)
Category 7 cable standard has been created to allow 10 Gigabit Ethernet over 100 m of copper cabling (also, 10 Gbit/s Ethernet now is typically run on Cat 6A). The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like the earlier standards. Category 7 cable can be terminated either with 8P8C compatible GG45 electrical connectors which incorporate the 8P8C standard or with TERA connectors. When combined with GG45 or TERA connectors, Category 7 cable is rated for transmission frequencies of up to 600 MHz.
Category 7A cables, introduced by ISO 11801 Edition 2 Amendment 2 (2010), are defined at frequencies up to 1000 MHz, suitable for multiple applications including CATV (862 MHz). Each pair offers 1200 MHz of bandwidth.
Category 8, which will use the standard 8P8C connector. Category 8 should be fully backward compatible with Category 6A and below, and will be covered by ANSI/TIA-568-C.2-1 "Specifications for 100? Category 8 Cabling".
The electrode in a device that electrons flow into. In a battery or other source of direct current the cathode is the positive terminal, but in a passive load it is the negative terminal._
an ionic polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are cations. (IUPAC)
A sheet of material employed singly or in pairs in hot or cold pressing of assemblies being bonded.
Distribution system that uses the space between the false or suspended ceiling and the structural ceiling for housing horizontal cable routes.
The geographic area served by a single low-power transmitter/receiver. A cellular system’s service area is divided into multiple "cells". Cells can vary in size depending on terrain, capacity demands, etc. By controlling the transmission power, the radio frequencies assigned to one cell can be limited to the boundaries of that cell.
A fast packet switching technique which uses fixed-length cells. Generic name for ATM, SMDS and BISDN.
The location where communications equipment is located for each cell. A cell site usually includes antennas, a support structure for those antennas, and communications equipment to connect the site to the rest of the wireless system.
A method of increasing the capacity of a wireless system by subdividing or splitting cells into two or more smaller cells.
Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)
Introduced in 1992 by McCaw Cellular, IBM and a group of eight other major cellular companies, CDPD uses the idle time in the analog cellular-telephone system to transmit packetized data at rates up to 19.2 kb/s.
Insulating material in foamed or sponge form with the cells closed or interconnected.
A material containing many small cells dispersed throughout it. The cells may be either open or closed.
Expanded or foam, consists of individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a plastic medium, resulting in a desirable reduction of the dielectric constant.
Expanded or "foam" polyethylene consisting of individual closed cells suspended in a polyethylene medium. Often found as dielectric material in coaxial cable.
Center wavelength (CW)
The nominal value operating wavelength in a laser; thereby, the wavelength defined by a peak mode measurement where the effective optical power resides. Also, the average of the two wavelengths measured at half amplitude points of the power spectrum in lasers and LEDs.
A material located in the middle of a cable that provides extra strength and anti-buckling properties.
The place where communications common carriers terminate customer lines and locate switching equipment that interconnects those lines.
Central strength member (CSM)
A semi-rigid, fibered glass or metallic rod located in the center of a multifiber cable assembly. Usually referred to as dielectric, it provides a directional form for wrapping and stability. This inhibits the buffers from being damaged (stressing the fibers) during the bending of the cable.
A cabling configuration from the work area to a centralized cross-connect using pull-through cables, an interconnect or splice in the telecommunications room.
Certificate of Compliance (C of C)
A certificate which is normally generated by a Quality Control Department, which shows that the product being shipped meets customer's specifications.
Certified Test Report (CTR)
A report providing actual test data on a cable. Tests are normally run by a Quality Control Department, which shows that the product being shipped conforms to test specifications.
the whole part of part of a macromolecule (or oligomer molecule or block) comprising a sequence of constitutional units between two boundary constitutional units, each of which may be either an end-group or a branch point. Except in linear single-strand macromolecules, the definition of the chain may be somewhat arbitrary. A cyclic macromolecule has no end groups but may nevertheless be regarded as chain. Where appropriate, definitions relating to "macromolecule" may also be applied to "chain". (IUPAC)
a chain reaction in which the growth of a polymer chain proceeds exclusively by reaction(s) between monomer(s) and reactive site(s) on the polymer chain such that the reactive site(s) are regenerated on the same polymer chain by the end of each growth step. A chain polymerization consists of initiation and propagation reactions, and may also include termination and chain transfer reactions. The adjective "chain" in "chain polymerization" denotes "chain reaction". In a chain polymerization, the average degree of polymerization remains constant with monomer conversion (e.g., in steady-state, radical polymerizations) or may increase with monomer conversion (e.g., in the formation of living polymers). (IUPAC)
A material added during the polymerization process to terminate or control the degree of the reaction. This could result in soft sealants, or higher elongation.
A chemical reaction, usually occurring during chain polymerizations, in which the activity of the kinetic-chain carrier is transferred from the growing macromolecule or oligomer molecule to another molecule or another part of the same molecule. Chain transfer to another part of the same molecule is often termed backbiting. (IUPAC)
The preventing of the proper coalescence of the adhesive film due to low temperatures of the air, wood or adhesive.
The current produced when a D.C. voltage is first applied to conductors of an unterminated cable. It is caused by the capacitive reactance of the cable, and decreases exponentially with time.
A communications path or the signal sent over that path. Through multiplexing several channels, voice channels can be transmitted over an optical channel.
The Channel Link includes up to 90 m (295 ft) of horizontal cable, a work area patchcord, a telecommunications outlet/connector, an optional transition point or consolidation connector, and two connections in the telecommunications room. When a maximum horizontal length of 90 m is used, then the total length of the patchcords shall not exceed 10 m (33 ft). For other lengths of horizontal cabling, refer to ANSI/EIA/EIA-568-B.2.
Channel Service Unit
A device that interfaces a digital telephone line to a multiplexer or other digital device for high-speed communications.
Character Oriented Protocol
A communications protocol that responds to special control characters as opposed to individual bit values for function control.
Characteristic Impedance is the measure of a transmission medium’s impedance throughout its length and over a swept frequency spectrum. When terminating transmission media, it is important to match its Characteristic Impedance so as to minimize reflections.
The current produced when a DC voltage is first applied to conductors of an unterminated cable. It is caused by the capacitive reactance of the cable, and decreases exponentially with time.
The ability of the insulation to withstand exposure to and resist damage by chemicals and substances. Exposure can range from immersion to occasional contact. Six basic types of chemicals are: Acid: can be organic or inorganic; have a tendency to dissociate in water to partially or completely ionized in solution; typical organic acids are citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrogen cyanide, lactic acid and salicylic acid; typical inorganic acids are sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocholir acid. Alchols: organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, in which R represents an alkyl group and -OH represents one or more hudroxl groups; typical compounds are methanol, ethanol, glycols and isopropanol; used in antiseptics, cough syrups, medications, cleaners, coating, shellac, dyes, inks, fuel additives, cosmetics, perfumes and as base materials for plasticizers synthetic lubricants. Aliphatic hydrocarbons; organic compounds whose carbon atoms are joined in straight or branched chains instead of rings; typical compoiuns are mineral spirits, paint thinner, petroleum distillate, and cyclohexane; found in oil and alkyd based coatings, pesticides, furniture oils, cleaners and som cosmetics. Alkalis: hydroxides of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium); easily soluble in water and form basic solutions, neutralizes acids, forming salts and water; typical alkalis are sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. Aromatic hydrocarbons: organic compounds that contain at least one ring of six carbon atoms, each joined to at least two other carbon atoms; typical compounds are toluene, xylene, phenol, benzene, and styrene; found in enamel paints, paint strippers, some lacquer coatings, in gaseoline, in engine cleaners, in styrenic plastics, phenolic resins, creosol perservatives and some pesticides. Oils: describes a variety of greasy fluid substances that are typically viscous liquids at room temperature, less dense than water, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and usually flammable; the wide range of compositions make generalizations not useful, but they can be grouped; groupings would be petroleum/hydrocarbons, fats/oils, and volatile oils; petroleum/hydrocarbons are used as fuels, solvents, and lubricants; fats/oils are used in soaps, lubricants. There are other additional types not listed.
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center. Provides emergency information on materials involved in transportation accidents.
Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)
A polymerized ethylene resin that has been treated or combined with chlorine or a chlorine compound; A synthetic rubber jacketing compound.
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by Dupont under the tradename of Hypalon.
Chromatic Dispersion (CD)
Spreading of a light pulse caused by the difference in refractive indices at different lengths; The variation in the velocity of light (group velocity) as a function of wavelength. It causes pulses of a modulated laser source to broaden when traveling within the fiber, up to a point where pulses overlap and bit error rate increases. CD is a limiting factor in high-speed transmission and must be properly compensated, which implies proper testing. A combination of material and waveguide dispersion.
The relocation of an individual or a group of individuals within a building such that the workspace or services to the workspace require change.
A complete path over which electrons can flow from the negative terminals of a voltage source through parts and wires to the positive terminals of the same voltage source. When the continuity of the circuit is broken it is called an open circuit: when con
Circuit-switched data involves keeping a circuit open between users for the duration of a connection.
The area of a circle one mil [0.001 in] in diameter; 7.845 x 10¨7 sq. in. Used in expressing wire cross sectional area.
Circular Mil Area (CMA)
The square of a conductor diameter in mils, of thousandths of an inch. Example a 30 AWG conductor has a diameter of 10 mils and a CMA of 100. Used to determine conductor sizes.
The type of crimp where the crimping dies completely surround a barrel, resulting in symmetrical indentations in the barrel. (MIL-STD)
The low refractive index optical coating surrounding the core of a fiberoptic cable that prevents light from escaping the core. The cladding guides light along the core.
Cladding (Fiber Optic)
A layer of glass (or other material) surrounding the core of a fiber, forming the conduit that carries the light through the fiber. It has a refractive index slightly lower than the core.
A series of cold clamps arranged and used like a Ferris wheel. This permits a large number of panels to be clamped and stored within a small area.
The period of time required for a joint to gain enough strength to permit it to be removed from pressure with no decrease in long-term strength.
Tying tapes, lacing cords, and flexible sleevings which are used for wire and cable bundling, harnessing, and holding. Other devices include plastic ties or clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing, and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) rates the clamping voltage of surge protectors. The lower the rating, the better the protection.
In an adhesively bonded joint, a separation in the joint caused by wedge or other crack-opening type action.
The force per unit width of bond line required to produce progressive separation by wedge or other crack-opening type action of two adherends.
A technique where an optical fiber is scratched to produce flat end surfaces that are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fiber. See scribe.
Cleave and crimp
A connector installation technique, also known as a no-polish connector. The plug is installed onto the cable with the optic protruding from the end. The cable is crimped to the connector and the optic is cleaved as close to the connector endface as possible.
A device consisting of a scribing blade, usually made from either diamond or tungsten carbide, used to score a fiber in order to break it without causing a fracture, hackles or angular irregularities. Also known as a cleaver or scribe tool.
A technique by which processing can be distributed between nodes requesting information (clients) and those maintaining data (servers).
In data communications, a device that generates precisely spaced timing pulses used for synchronizing transmissions and recording elapsed times.
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying.
Clorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon.
Closed Assembly Time
Period of assembly time when the adhesive film is not exposed to the air, but prior to the time that pressure has been applied.
Closed cell material
A cellular material in which substantially all cells in the mass are closed cells.
Closed End Splice
An insulated splice in which two or more wires overlap and enter the splice from the same end of the barrel.
A contact or contact cavity design in the insert or body of the connector which limits the size or position of the mating contact or printed circuit board to a predetermined dimension. (MIL-STD)
Closed Entry Contact
A specially designed connector interface which controls the entry of the male pin from damaging the female contact.
SYSTIMAX® SCS location for hardware, conduits, power panels, and electronics, such as multiplexers and concentrators.
An enclosed space for housing telecommunications equipment, cable terminations, and cross-connect cabling. The closet is the recognized location of the cross-connect between the backbone and horizontal facilities.
An operation where all leads are to be covered and the jacket insulations is captured by a type of hood or cover.
The siting of two or more separate companies’ wireless antennas on the same support structure.
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM)
Applies to greater separation of wavelengths than DWDM. In single-mode applications, CWDM defines a 20-nm separation from 1471 nm to 1611 nm. With multimode fibers, the wavelengths are 778, 800, 825, and 850 nm.
A material applied to the surface of a conductor to prevent environmental deterioration, facilitate soldering or improve electrical performance.
A cable that consists of two conductors laid concentrically along the same axis. One conducting wire is surrounded by a insulator, which is in turn surrounded by the other, outer conductor. The whole cable is wrapped in a protective plastic sheathing. Coaxial is frequently shortened to Coax (Co-ax)_
Coaxial Cable (Coax)
1)A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.__2)A wide-band cable consisting of an inner conductor a dielectric and a concentric outer shield. Coaxial cable is usually specified as to characteristic impedance, frequency response and propagation delay.__3)A cable consisting of one center conductor to carry a signal, surrounded concentrically (coaxially) by an insulating dielectric and a separate outer conductor (braid or metal jacket) which acts as a shield for the signal.
A contact having two conducting surfaces, a center contact and a coaxially placed sleeve.
A transmission line consisting of a center conductor suspended in a hollow cylindrical tube with or without a dielectric support. The hollow cylindrical tube is called the outer conductor.
CODE-Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
CDMA is a digital technology that uses a low-power signal "spread" across a wide bandwidth. With CDMA a phone call is assigned a code rather than a certain frequency. Using the identifying code and a low-power signal, a large number of callers can use the same group of channels. Some estimates indicate CDMA’s capacity increase over analog may be as much as 20 to one. The Telecommunications Industry Association has awarded CDMA inter-standard approval (IS-95).
Coefficient of expansion
The coefficient of linear expansion is the ratio of the change in length per degree to the length at 0°C.
Lasers and LEDs emit coherent light waves that are in phase with one another. Coherence describes properties of the correlation between a single wave, or between several waves or wave packets. When interfering, two waves can add together to create a wave of greater amplitude than either one (constructive interference) or subtract from one another to create a wave of lesser amplitude than either one (destructive interference).
A light source which emits a very narrow, unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic).
The phenomenon related to the existence of a correlation between the phases of the corresponding components of two waves or between the values of the phase of a given component of one wave at two instants in time or two points in space.
The molecular attraction which holds the body of an adhesive together. The internal strength of an adhesive.
Cohesion (cohesive) failure
Rupture of a bonded assembly in which the separation appears visually to be in the adhesive or the adherend.
The ability of the adhesive to stick within itself during the wet stage. The term cohesive strength also applies to the internal strength of dried adhesive.
The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral-wrapped shield, especially above audio frequencies.
Cable formed into the shape of a spring by winding cable around a mandrel, and heat set into the shape (also referred to as retractile cordset). This permits the extension of a coiled cord to a length from 3 to 5 times it's length at rest. A coiled cord will typically return , after being extended and released, to a length similar to it's original length at rest.
A laboratory test procedure whereby a sample of wire or cable is wound around a mandrel of a specified size at a specified temperature for a given number of turns at a given rate of speed and examined for defects.
Test conducted by rapping tubing around a mandrel or by bending it in a arc while at a low temperature
1)Permanent deformation of insulation due to mechanical forces, without the aid of heat-softening of the insulating material.__2)Deformation of the insulation due to mechanical force or pressure (not due to heat softening).
A hydraulic or pneumatic press designed to press face-glued or veneered panels without the addition of heat.
A bonding operation in which an assembly is subjected to pressure without the application of heat.
Any test to determine the performance of cables during or after subjection to a specified low temperature for a specified time.
This architecture is a backbone topology where wiring concentrators located at floor levels are attached in a star configuration to a central high performance switching concentrator.
A process in which a divergent or convergent beam of radiation is converted into a beam with the minimum divergence as possible, preferably parallel.
The event that occurs when data from two devices attached to a common bus are placed on the bus at the same time. In Ethernet this typically generates a re-transmission.
The particular color of a tape, when looking at the backing, regardless of the color of the adhesive.
8 to 10 cycles of 3.68 MHz subcarrier that is added to the back porch of the Horizontal Sync Pulse. The Color Burst is used to synchronize the color elements of a color video signal.
A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors, stripes or surface operating
The timing relationship between the Luminance and chroma portions of a composite color video signal.
The ability of a tape to retain its original color, particularly when exposed to light.
A macromolecule comprising a main chain from which long chains emanate at approximately regular intervals. (IUPAC)
Commercial Mobile-Radio Service
The regulatory classification that the Federal Communications Commission uses to govern all commercial wireless service providers, including personal communications services, cellular, and enhanced specialized mobile radio.
Common Axis Cabling
In multiple cable constructions, a twisting of all conductors about a common axis with two conductor groups then selected as pairs. This practice yields smaller diameter constructions than does a separate axis construction, but tends to yield greater sus
An organization that provides regulated telephone, telegraph, telex and data communications systems.
Noise caused by a difference in ground potential. By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference.
Common Mode Current
The component of the signal current that induces electric and magnetic fields that do not cancel each other. For example; in circuit with one outgoing signal conductor and one ground conductor, the common-mode current is the component of the total signal current that flows in the same direction on both conductors. This is the primary source of EMI in many electronic systems.
Common Mode Interference
Interference appearing between signal leads or the terminals of a measuring circuit and ground.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
The ratio of the common-mode interference voltage at the input of a circuit to the corresponding interference voltage at the output. This ratio expresses the capability of the device to reject the effect of a voltage that is applied simultaneously to both input terminals. A high ratio is desirable.
The electronic transfer of information between the points of origin and reception. Includes all manual and machine interfaces necessary to complete the transfer.
Communications Common Carrier
In the U.S., a government-regulated private company that furnishes the general public with telecommunications service facilities; for example, a telephone or telegraph company.
A complex of data communications equipment, data links and channels that connect one or more data processing systems.
The rules that govern the behavior and attributes of both hardware and software as they apply to data communications.
A device which acts as a gateway to communication lines outside normal building boundaries or to a different communicating device. The server may allow access to several lines by any number of users on a network. Sometimes called a modem pool.
Community antenna television (CATV)
Assumed to be cable television, CATV uses fiber and coaxial media to provide voice, video, or data services.
Stranded conductor rolled to deform the round wires to fill the normal interstices between the wires in a strand.
The ability of dissimilar materials to exist in mutual proximity or contact without changing their physical or electrical properties.
Competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC)
A company that provides its own network and switching in competition with the already-established ILEC. A newly formed exchange company in direct competition with the ILEC for the telecom transport market in a specific area. Also known as competitive access provider (CAP).
A basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit._
Composite (Clad) Wire
A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of different metals.
Composite second order (CSO)
An analog signal distortion that can result in a visual impairment in picture quality, e.g., a rolling or intermittent diagonal line across the TV screen.
Composite triple beat (CTB)
Combination of distortions caused by nonlinearities generated by amplifiers and other components in a cable TV network handling many RF signals.
The variation in elemental composition from molecule to molecule usually found in copolymers. (IUPAC)
Any technique for reducing a transmission bandwidth requirement by reduction of the data stream needed to convey the information. Compression standards are identified by MPEG.
A pipe type cable in which the pressure medium is separated from the insulation by a membrane or sheath.
Connector crimped by an externally applied force; the conductor is also crimped by such force inside the tube-like connector body. Compression connectors are in very intimate contact with the two ends of the conductors being spliced.
A method of molding thermosets. Compound (usually preheated) is placed in an open mold, mold is closed, and heat and pressure applied until material is cured. This process can also be used with synthetic rubber materials.
The adding of computer intelligence to the making, receiving and managing of telephone calls.
The function of routing information from a number of communications links into a smaller number of higher capacity links and providing the reverse flow from fewer to more links. A device which performs this function usually is called a concentrator. Unlike the multiplexer, the concentrator is a programmable device.
Programmable device which routes information from a number of communications links into a smaller number of higher capacity links and provides the reverse flow from fewer to more links.
A central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement.
Cable conductor composed of a central conductor surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid insulated wires or conductors.
A wire that consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of spiral laid wires.
Concentric Stranded Conductors
Manufactured to ASTM, ICEA, and CSA standards. The most common fixed installation type conductors are : 1) Round-no diameter reduction: 2) Compressed-approximately 3% diameter reduction; 3) Compact-approximately 10% diameter reduction.
1)A central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement.__2)Stranding in which the individual filaments are spiraled in layers around a central core. As a general rule, each layer after the first has six more strands than the preceding layer and is applied in a direction contra-helical to that of the layer under it.
A concentric-lay conductor, or a multiple-conductor cable composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid insulated conductors.
In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the insulation. Expressed in percent.
A chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine with the separation (or release) of water or some other simple substance. If a polymer is formed, the process is called polycondensation.
One in which two or more molecules combine resulting in elimination of water or other simple molecules, with the process being repeated to form a long chain molecule.
Temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. which exist in the area surrounding the bond, normally room temperature, atmospheric pressure, daylight, etc.
A reaction in which monomer molecules with at least two functional groups combine and eliminate water (or some other simple molecule) to form a polymer
1)The reciprocal of resistance. It is the ratio of current passing through a material to the potential difference at its ends.__2)The ability of a conductor to carry an electrical charge. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. The reciprocal of resistance.
The potential EMI generated inside equipment and carried through the I/O lines, the power lines or control leads.
The EMI that couples from the outside of equipment to the inside of equipment over the I/O cables, power lines or signal leads.
A rubber-like material containing metal powder or small particles for conducting electricity to achieve a specified shielding effectiveness.
The capacity of a material to carry electrical current that is usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100%).
1)An electric current carrying material such as copper wire; the conductive element in an electrical wire or coaxial connector.__2)An insulated wire suitable for carrying electrical current.__3)A conductor is a slender rod or filament of drawn metal of circular cross section or group of such rods or filaments not insulated from one another, suitable for transmitting an electric current.
A type of metal used to make wire for conductors. The most commonly used material is ETP copper (usually referred to as copper). A special grade of copper is OFHC copper, which is oxygen-free, high conductivity copper. Alloys of copper are used for applications needing higher strength or longer flex life or greater reliability. These alloys are normally Cadmium bronze (also known as Cadmium copper). Less frequently used alloys are Cadmium chromium copper, phosphor bronze, and Silicone bronze.
An extrusion of black semi-conducting thermoses material over the conductor to provide a smooth interface with the insulation for even distribution of electrical stress.
A device on a terminal, splice, contact or tool used to prevent excessive extension of the conductor barrel.
Solid wires twisted together or groups of twisted solid wires which are then twisted together. The most common types of stranded conductors are 7 twisted wires (7 strand), or 16 twisted wires (16 strand), or 19 twisted wires (19 strand). Other strandings are 37 twisted wires 63 twisted wires, and 127 twisted wires. Concentric stranded conductors are twisted in progressive layers of 6 wires around 1 wire (7 strand), or 12 wires around 6 wires around 1 wire (19 strand) and 18 wires around 12 wires around 6 wires around 1 wire (37 strand). Bunch stranded conductors are twisted together at one time rather than in layers. Buch stranded conductors are typically either 16, 19, 26, 28, 37 or 40 twisted wires. The finished AWG (guage) of a conductor is determined by the number of strands (of wire) based on the AWG of the wire itself. For example, 7 strands of a 34 AWG wire will result in a 26 AWG conductor. A complete listing of the strand and AWG combinations can be found in our Stranded Conductors Chart.
A pipe made of metal, plastic, or clay used for the installation of communications or power cables between two or more locations.
Conduit (Electrical Raceway)
A rigid or flexible metallic or non-metallic raceway of circular cross section through which wire and cables can be pulled or housed.
The number, spacing and arrangement of contacts in a connector. (MIL-STD). Related chemical structure produced by the making and breaking of primary valence bonds.
Configurational Base Unit
A constitutional repeating unit in a regular macromolecule (or oligomer or block), the configuration of which is defined at least at one site of stereoisomerism in the main chain. (IUPAC)
Configurational Repeating Unit
The smallest set of successive configurational base units that prescribes configurational repetition at one or more sites of stereoisomerism in the main chain of a regular macromolecule (or oligomer or block). (IUPAC)
The whole or part of a chain comprising one or more species of configurational units in defined sequence. Note configurational sequences comprising two configurational units are termed diads, those comprising three configurational units triads, and so one. In order of increasing sequence lengths they are called tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, octads, nonads, decads, etc. (IUPAC)
The ability of tape to fit snugly or make essentially complete contact with the surface of an irregular object without creasing or folding.
A flame-retardant plastic block containing metal wiring terminal (quick clips) that establishes an electrically tight connection between the cable and the cross-connect wire; An interconnecting device used in telecommunications and LAN applications consisting of multiple points for wire attachment. Some common connecting blocks are the 66 block, 110 block, the BIX block and the Krone block.
1) A device providing mechanical cable terminations between two cable ends; 2) See Cross Connect.
The continuous electrical path between 2 or more points wherein current flows. The path is constructed with metal parts, such as copper wire, contacts, terminations, splices, and mating contacts of connectors.
A device used to physically and electrically connect two or more conductors. Also used to physically connect cable to equipment.
Includes housing and contact plus additional components such as hardware used to hold the assembly together and/or make the assembly a functional connector.
A device, whether a plug or a receptacle, used to terminate or connect the conductors of wires (individual or in cables) and which provides a means to continue the conductors to a mating connector or printed circuit board. (MIL-STD).
That part which holds the contacts in their proper arrangement and electrically insulates them from each other and from the shell.
Connector Return Loss
Amount of power reflected from the connector to connector interface, typically expressed in decibels.
Connector Set, Electrical
Two or more separate connectors, plug connector and receptacle connector, designed to be mated together. The set may include mixed connectors mated together, such as one connector plug and one dummy connector receptacle, or a connector receptacle and one electrical plug. (MIL-STD).
The outside case of a connector into which the dielectric material and contacts are assembled. (MIL-STD)
A process where customers provide the manufacturer with all the parts and materials. The manufacturer then builds the products and deliver completed assemblies or cables to the customer. Sometimes referred to as kitted._
A step during the optical fiber manufacturing process during which the bait rod is removed and the remaining silica is heated at high temperatures (sintering) to drive out impurities and water and leave only a pure glass rod.
A location for interconnection between horizontal cables extending from a telecommunications room and horizontal cables extending to telecommunications outlet/connectors.
An alloy used in making thermocouples wires. An alloy of copper, nickel manganese and iron.
The variation in constitution from molecule to molecule in polymers with molecules uniform with respect to elemental composition. (IUPAC)
Constitutional Repeating Unit
The smallest constitutional unit, the repetition of which constitutes a regular macromolecule (or oligomer molecule or block). (IUPAC)
The whole or part of a chain comprising one or more species of constitutional units in defined sequence. Note constitutional sequences comprising two constitutional units are termed diads, those comprising three constitutional units triads, and so one. In order of increasing sequence lengths they are called tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, octads, nonads, decads, etc. (IUPAC)
An atom or group of atoms in a macromolecule or oligomer molecule, comprising a part of the chain together with its pendant atoms or groups of atoms, if any. (IUPAC)
Design of wire rope including number of strands, number of wires per strand and arrangement of wires in each strand
The conductive element in a connector which makes actual contact for the purpose of transferring electrical energy. (MIL-STD) Generally, in a male connector the contact is a pin and in a female connector it is a socket.
Adhesive that is applied to both adherends and after a specified open assembly time will instantly develop a bond when a firm but not sustained pressure is applied.
Defines the overall radial play which contacts shall have within the insert cavity so as to permit self-alignment of mated contacts. Sometimes referred to as amount of contact float.
Contact Angle (Soldering)
The angle of a solder fillet that is enclosed between a plane that is tangent to the solder/basis-metal surface and a planethat is tangnet to the solder/air interface.
The area in contact between two conductors, two contacts or a conductor and a contact permitting the flow of electricity. (MIL-STD)
The number of insertion and withdrawal cycles that a connector must be capable of withstanding while remaining within the performance levels of the applicable specification.
Contact Engaging & Separating Force
1) The force needed to either engage or separate pins and socket contacts when they are in and out of connector inserts. Values are generally established for maximum and minimum forces. Performance acceptance levels vary by specification and/or customer requirements.__2) Force needed to either engage or separate mating contacts. (MIL-STD)
A contact having an engagement end that will accept entry of a pin contact. (MIL-STD) Also called Socket contact
The overall side-play and/or angular displacement of contacts within the insert cavity. (MIL-STD)
A contact design which is a combination pin and socket and which mates with other contacts of the same design. (MIL-STD) Both mating elements are precisely alike at their mating face.
Contact Inspection Hole
A hole in the cylindrical rear portion of contact used to check the depth to which a wire has been inserted.
The distance of travel made by a contact in touch with another during the insertion and removal of a connector.
A contact having an engagement end that enters the socket contact. (MIL-STD) A male type contact, usually designed to mate with a socket or female contact. It is normally connected to the “dead” side of a circuit. Also called Pin Contact
Metal plating applied to the base contact metal to provide the required contact resistance and/or wear resistance.
1) Electrical resistance of a pair of engaged contacts. Resistance may be measured in Ohms or millivolt drop at a specified current over the engaged contacts. (MIL-STD)__2) Measurement of electrical resistance of mated contacts when assembled in a connector under typical service use. Electrical resistance is determined by measuring from the rear of the electrical area of one contact to the rear of the electrical area of the mating contact (excluding both crimps) while carrying a specified test current.
A device either on the contact or in the insert to retain the contact in an insert or body. (MIL-STD)
The axial load in either direction which a contact can withstand without being dislodged from its normal position within an insert or body. (MIL-STD)
The distance of travel (electrical engagement) made by one contact with another during its engagement or separation or during mating or unmating of the connector halves. (MIL-STD)
The conducting members of a connecting device that are designed to provide a separable through connection in a cable-to-cable, cable-to-box or a box-to-box situation.
(1) A continuous path for the flow of current in an electrical circuit. (2) An uninterrupted path for he flow of electrical current in a circuit.
A test to determine whether electrical current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire in a cable or center conductor of a cable assembly.
Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in the same direction, as opposed to reverse bend
Continuous Current Rating
The designated RMS alternating or direct current which the connector can carry continuously under specified conditions.
Continuous Operating Temperature
Maximum temperature at which a component will maintain an acceptable lifetime performance, based on accelerated aging prediction
Continuous wave (CW)
Energy is emitted from a module continuously, rather than in short pulses. CW applications require the laser to be on at all times. Constant output from an optical source that is active but not modulated by a signal.
Cable spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable.
Controlled environment vault (CEV)
A reinforced vault designed to provide an environmentally stable underground area to house fiber optic transmission equipment and electronics for switching, monitoring, back-up power, remote terminals, etc.
Controlled Impedance Cable
Package of two or more insulated conductors where impedance measurements betweenrespective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length.
A conveying, or transference of heat or electricity by moving particles of matter. The transfer of heat by movement of hot air. Often used in conjunction with infrared radiation to reduce the effect of IR shadowing.
The distance between the lowest and highest lead when the connector is laying in its seating place.
A dielectric material, composed of polyisobutylene and polystyrene developed as a substitute of polystyrene. However, polyethylene is more commonly used instead of copolene.
The most widely used electrical conductor in wires and cables. Some of the common types of electrical coppers and copper alloys are:
Copper and Copper Alloys
The most widely used electrical conductor in wires and cables. Copper and its alloys are used extensively for contacts and connectors. Copper has the best conductivity of the common (non-precious) metals. Copper and copper alloys offer excellent corrosion resistance, thigh thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication, joining and forming.
Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. Synonymous with Copperweld.
Copper covered steel wire. Copper and steel welded together. The trade name of Flexo Wire Division (Copperweld Steel Corp.) for their copper-clad steel conductors.
A cable using stranded conductors for flexibility as in distribution cords or line cords. Line cords can also use tinsel conductors.
Tight buffered breakout cables used to build patch cords (jumpers). Internally, the fibers are normally one or two 900-micron coated fibers. The term “zipcord” describes a two-fiber cordage to allow two separate plugs to have their own strain relief.
A short length of copper wire or fiber optic cable with connectors on each end. Used to connect equipment to cabling, or to connect cabling segments (cross-connection).
(1) In cables, a term used to express a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied, such as additional components, shield, sheath, or armor; (2) In fiber optics, the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections.
A measure of the relationship between the geometric center of the core of an optical fiber and the geometric center of the cladding, or how centered the core is.
A ratio of the minimum to maximum diameters of the core within an optical fiber, or how round the core is.
Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well
1)A discharge resulting from a partial electrical breakdown in voltage exceeding a certain breakdown value.__2)A discharge due to ionization of air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value.
The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of field-intensified ionization that does not result in the immediate complete breakdown of the insulation.
1)The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction.__2)The deterioration of a material by chemical reaction or galvanic action.
Bare copper, usually soft drawn, buried around the perimeter of a structure for grounding purposes. When grounding electrical transmission towers - usually running parallel to the overhead lines along the right-of-way. A grounding installation employed wh
A substance having functional groups that are capable of reacting with the surfaces of two different substances, thereby chemically bridging them.
In fiber optics, signal losses due to small differences in numerical aperature, core diameter, core concentricity and tolerances in splicing connectors when two fibers are aligned. Also known as Splicing Loss and Transfer Loss.
That portion of a plug which aids in the mating or unmating of a plug and receptacle and holds the plug to the receptacle. (MIL-STD) Also called Coupling Ring
A measure of how a device distributes light from its inputs to its outputs. Expressed as either a percentage or in dB.
A device on a plug connector which contains means to automatically secure the coupling to the receptacle and prevent any coupling rotation during shock and vibration. (MIL-STD)
The force required to rotate a coupling ring or jackscrew to fully engage a mating pair of connectors.
Cover Electrical Connector
An item which is specifically designed to cover the mating end of a connector for mechanical and/or environmental protection. (MIL-STD)
The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. The higher percentage of coverage, the greater the protection against external interference .
Textile braid or jacket of rubber plastics, or other materials applied over wire and cable to provide mechanical protection and identification.
The formation of fissures or voids in the adhesive film due to excessive shrinkage characteristics of the adhesive.
In an adhesive, the time-dependent deformation usually resulting from sustained stress. Final configuration of a terminal barrel formed by the compression of terminal barrel and wire.
The shortest distance on the surface of an insulator separating two electrically conductive surfaces. (MIL-STD)
The total strain, at any given time, produced by the applied stress during a creep test.
The path electricity must travel across the surface of a dielectric between two conductors. Lengthening the creepage path reduces the possibility of arc damage or tracking.
An insulating surface which provides physical separation as a form of insulation between two electrical conductors of different potential.
The act of compressing a connector barrel around a cable in order to make an electrical connection.
A contact whose back portion is a hollow cylinder to allow it to accept a wire. After a bared wire is inserted, a swedging tool is applied to crimp the contact metal firmly against the wire.
A measurement taken of the overal wire barrel height after the terminal has been crimped.
A sleeve of lightweight metal is deformed by compression to encapsulate material and provide strain relief at the rear of a fiber optic plug.
Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or automated crimping machines.
That part of the crimping die, usually the moving part, which indents or compresses the terminal barrels. Sometimes called an indentor.
A pressure method of mechanically securing a terminal, splice or contact to a conductor. (MIL-STD) Crimp vs Solder
Area of a crimping tool formed by mating the anvil (nest) and crimper (indentor), in which a contact or terminal is crimped.
Portion of the crimping tool that shapes the crimp. (MIL-STD) This term is used to identify the shaping tools that when moved toward each other, produce a certain desirable shape to the barrel of the terminal or contact that has been placed between them. Crimping dies are often referred to as die sets or as die inserts.
Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or crimp dies.
Mechanism used for crimping. (MIL-STD) The term commonly used to identify a handheld mechanical device or table press that is used to crimp a contact, ferrule, terminal or splice.
Smallest angle at which a meridional ray may be totally reflected within a fiber at the core-cladding interface.
Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope which permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal position
Spurious color patterns in a color picture resulting from incomplete separation of the luminance and chroma portions of the color video signal.
SYSTIMAX� SCS component where communication circuits are administered (that is, added or rearranged using jumper wire or patch cords). In 110 Connector Systems, Hook-Up Wire or patch cords are used to make circuit connections. In fiber optic connector systems, fiber optic patch cords are used. The cross connect is located in an equipment room or telecommunications closet. See also Jumper Wire and Patch Cord.
Cross Connect Field
Copper wire or fiber terminations grouped to provide cross-connect capability. The groups are identified by color-coded sections of back boards mounted on the wall in equipment rooms or telecommunications closets, or by designation strips or labels placed on the wiring block or unit. The color coding identifies the type of circuit that terminates at the field.
A defect that manifests itself as a dot pattern that moves through the picture because of chroma information leaking into the luminance signal.
Cross Sectional Area of a Conductor
The summation of all cross-sectional areas of the individual strands in the conductor, expressed in square inches or more commonly in circular mils.
Cross Sectioning and Analysis Service
Fiber Optic Center's unique cross-sectioning service to identify and isolate problems related to fiber optic terminations that would otherwise be invisible.
A magnetic or electrostatic coupling which causes the unwanted transfer of energy from one signal path (disturbing circuit) to another signal path (disturbed circuit).
A facility enabling the termination of cable elements and their interconnection, and/or cross-connection, primarily by means of a patch cord or jumper.
A connection scheme between cabling runs, subsystems and equipment using patch cords or jumpers that attach to connecting hardware on each end.
The concentration at which the sum of the volumes of the domains occupied by the solute molecules or particles in solution is approximately equal to the total volume of that solution. (IUPAC)
Cross-phase modulation (XPM)
A nonlinear optical effect where one wavelength of light affects the phase of a similar wavelength of light.
The area of the cut surface of an object cut at right angles to the length of the object.
A veneer oriented at right angles to a face veneer used to ensure dimensional stability in a plywood panel
To form chemical bonds between molecules to produce a three-dimensional network; a constitutional unit connecting two parts of a macromolecule that were earlier separate molecules. Note a network may be thought to consist of many "primary chains" that are interconnected by a number of crosslinks. In the vast majority of cases, the crosslink is a covalent bond but the term is also used to describe sites of weaker chemical interactions, portions of crystallites, and even physical entanglements. (IUPAC)
A term denoting intermolecular bonds between long chain thermoplastic polymers, effected by chemical or irradiation techniques.
The generation of chemical links between the molecular chains, usually achieved by chemical reactions or high energy irradiation of the material.
Crosslinking by Irradiation
A method of crosslinking polymers that makes a nonflowing material. This generally improves the properties of the polymer.
An electromagnetic coupling between two physically isolated circuits in a system. 1) A type of interference caused by signals from one circuit being coupled into adjacent circuits. 2) A magnetic or electrostatic coupling which causes the unwanted transfer of energy from one circuit (disturbing circuit) to another circuit (disturbed circuit).
A test that determines the ability of a fiber optic cable to mechanically and optically withstand the effects of a compressive force. Testing specifies the changes in optical transmittance or attenuation during compressive loading. Specified in the TIA/EIA 455-41 “Compressive Loading Resistance of Fiber Optic Cables” fiber optic test procedure.
Polymer with a regular order or pattern of molecular arrangement and a sharp melting point.
The most important commerical measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (freeboard). Capacity is measured in cubic metres or cubic feet (cu.ft.).
To change the physical properties of a material by chemical reaction, by the action of heat and catalysts, alone or in combination, with or without pressure. The process by which a compound attains its intended performance properties by means of evaporation, chemical reaction, heat, radiation, or combinations thereof.
An oven specifically manufactured to use thermal curing to harden the epoxy injected into a fiber-optic ferrules.
The temperature to which an adhesive or an assembly is subjected to cure the adhesive.
The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. An indication of the ability of the wire to be wrapped around posts in long runs.
The rate of transfer of electricity. The practical unit is the ampere, which represents the transfer of one coulomb per second.
Current Carring Capacity
1)The current a conductor of a given size is capable of carrying without exceeding its temperature limitation. 2)The maximum current an insulted conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations. (Same as Ampacity)
The depth a current of a given frequency will penetrate into the surface of a conductor carrying the current
A sensor which measures EMI and clamps onto a wire, wire pair, coaxial line or cable harness to help locate and quantify ground loops. Snap-on current probes measure the normal-mode current in a wire pair, coaxial line or wire bundle.
The maximum continuous electrical flow of current recommended for a given wire in a given situation. Expressed in amperes (AMPS).
The maximum current an insulated conductor or cable can continuously carry without exceeding its temperature rating. It is also called ampacity.
Current, Alternating (AC)
An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. The number of full cycles occurring in a given unit of time (one second) is called the frequency of the current.
Current, Direct (DC)
Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only; it may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction.
Building(s) with grounds and appurtenances (belongings) under the control of the customer.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Customer owned equipment used to terminate or process information from the public network e.g. Multiplexed or PABX.
Cut Off Frequency
The frequency, above which other than the TEM mode may occur. The transmission characteristics of cables above their cutoff frequency may be unstable.
Cut Off Tab
The small tabs that remain on the front and back of a terminal after is has been applied.
Cut off wavelength
For a single mode fiber, the wavelength above which the fiber exhibits single mode operation.
Cut Through Resistance
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure, (usually a sharp edge or small radius) without separation.
A method of securing a wire to a wiring terminal. The insulated wire is placed in the terminal groove and pushed down with a special tool. As the wire is seated, the terminal cuts through the insulation to make an electrical connection, and the spring-loaded blade of the tool trims the wire flush with the terminal. Also called punch-down.
The frequency above which a coaxial device will support electrical modes other than the principal TEM (transverse electromagnetic) mode. This sets an upper limit to the coaxial line’s normal useful frequency range, distorting pulses and modulation envelopes.
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure, usually a sharp edge of prescribed radius, without separation.
A technique for measuring fiber attenuation by performing two transmission measurements. One is done at the output end of the full length of the fiber. The other is usually done within 1-3 meters of the input end and accessed by “cutting back” the test fiber and measuring the change in the pre- and post-cutback measurements.
That wavelength greater than which a particular waveguide mode ceases to be a bound mode. When transmitting lower than a single-mode fiber’s cutoff wavelength, the fiber transmits multimode. For G.652 single-mode fibers the cutoff wavelength is 1260 nm. For G.655 fibers, it can range from 1260 nm to 1450 nm.
The hole, usually round or rectangular, cut in a metal panel for mounting a connector. May include holes for mounting screws or bolts. (MIL-STD)
Group of adhesives which show "instant" cure properties and bond to a wide variety of substrates. Cure is by contact with alkaline materials. Weakly alkaline materials such as water, cause the cure to start. Commonly referred to as "super glue."
One complete sequence of values of an alternating quantity, including a rise to maximum in one direction and return to zero; a rise to maximum in the opposite direction and return to zero. The number of cycles occurring in one second in called the frequency.
The number of repetitive flex motions that a wire or cable can withstand prior to breakdown.
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
A coded sequence of information allowing error checking and correction.