FIBER OPTIC CENTER GLOSSARY
There are currently 3633 names in this directory
1-Part, AL-12xx Series
ÅngströmLink® non-curing gels. Also known as thixotropic gels, or greases, these are 1-part materials that flow when pressure is applied, and remain in place when the force is removed (like toothpaste). These materials are generally used to displace the air gap between two optical elements and do not form a permanent bond between the two elements; generally need other mechanical fastening to insure structural integrity of the joint. Joints interconnected in this way are easily unmade and remade.
10 Gigabit Ethernet
The IEEE has initiated work on the specification of 10 Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber cabling. The standard is planned for completion in 2001 or early 2002, with specifications for multimode and singlemode fiber.
30-MHz personal-communications-services provider serving a major trading area in the frequency block of 1850 to 1865 MHz paired with 1930 to 1945 MHz.
An early stage in the preparation of certain thermosetting resins, in which the material is still soluble in certain liquids, and fusible.
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance.
A material which is adhesive resistant and applicable as a non-sticking surface coating; release agent.
A measure of ability of a wire, wire covering or material to resist surface wear or damage by mechanical means.
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance .
A test in which voltage, temperature, etc., are increased above normal operating values to obtain observable deterioration in a relatively short period of time. The plotted results give expected service life under normal conditions.
A set of laboratory conditions to simulate in a short time the effects of natural weathering. Most adhesives are generally not subjected to the conditions that are normally considered under weathering tests.
Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to increasing the velocity of the load
The half-angle of the cone within which all incident light is totally internally reflected by the fiber core. For graded index fibers, acceptance angle is a function of position on the entrance face of the core.
In a data processing system, any of the techniques available to end users for movement of data between main storage and an input/output device or channel. These techniques are most commonly a part of the operating system.
Mechanical devices such as back-shells, cable clamps or strain reliefs which are attached to connectors to make up the total connector assembly.
(1) A retractile cable with a series of equally-spaced transverse folds. (2) A connector contact with a Z shaped flat spring to permit high deflection without overstress.
Acetate (cellulose acetate)
A transparent film which is used for various reasons in tape backings; the primary characteristic is that of being more moisture resistant than cellophane.
A very volatile and flammable solvent that is particularly useful for cleaning metal substrates.
A synthetic polymer with excellent aging characteristics that can be used as either a single component adhesive, coating or saturant, depending upon composition.
A chemical additive used to initiate the chemical reaction in a specific chemical mixture .
In an alternating current, a component in phase with the voltage. The working component as distinguished from the idle or wattless component.
An active device is a device that requires electrical power. One type is those that convert signals between electrical and optical formats such as lasers, LEDs, and photodiodes. Active devices also can manipulate light, such as optical amplifiers and modulators.
Active optical cable (AOC)
A fiber optic cable that has been preterminated with an external electrical endface, thereby removing the termination process. The electrical endfaces can be manufactured with most module formats. The most common module formats are the SFP and HDMI interfaces, but DVI, VGA, SFP+, and QSFP+ interfaces also can be provided.
In an AC circuit, the pressure which produces a current, as distinguished from the voltage impressed upon the circuit.
Ad Hoc Cabling
Cabling scheme where different types of cabling components from different vendors are linked together to form a cabling system.
A device that enables any or all of the following a) different sizes or types of plugs to mate with one another or to fit into a telecommunications outlet/connector; b) the rearrangement of leads; c) large cables with numerous wires to fan out into smalle
A mechanical media termination device designed to align and join fiber optic connectors. Often referred to as a coupling, bulkhead, or interconnect sleeve.
Add/drop multiplexer (ADM)
A mid-span electronic element that provides optoelectric/electro-optic conversion to add, drop, or multiplex photonic signals.
1) A chemical reaction in which simple molecules are linked together to form long chain molecules; 2) A chain reaction in which monomers with carbon-carbon double bonds are converted to polymers.
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may be chemical or mechanical in nature .
Adhesion (adhesive) failure
Rupture of an adhesive bond in which the separation appears visually to be at the adhesive/adherend interface.
An increase in the peel adhesion value of a pressure-sensitive tape after it has been allowed to dwell on the applied surface.
A substance used to improve bonding of the adhesive to the substrate. (Compare coupling agent and primer.) Discussion—The adhesion promoter may be added to an adhesive formulation or applied to the substrate.
Adhesion to backing
The bond produced by contact between a pressure-sensitive adhesive and the tape backing when one piece is applied to the back of another piece of the same tape.
Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.
Adhesion between surfaces that are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.
Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables.
A pressure-sensitive adhesive which is pulled away from the tape and remains on the surface to which the tape was applied.
Location at which two adherends are held together with a layer of adhesive. (See also bond )
Lining the melts and flows inside a sleeve filling any voids in between the substrate and the sleeve
The transfer of adhesive from its normal position on the tape to the surface to which the tape was attached, either during unwind or removal.
The locus of fracture occurring in an adhesively-bonded joint resulting in a loss of load-carrying capability.
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together such as the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.
An adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive.
Group of adhesives which show "instant" cure properties and bond to a wide variety of substrates. Cure is by contact with alkaline materials. Weakly alkaline materials, such as water, cause the cure to start.
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
Adhesive, Foamed – An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
Adhesive, Heat activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly.
Adhesive, Hot melt
An adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.
Adhesive, Intermediate temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 31°-99°C (87°-211°F).
Adhesive, Pressure sensitive
A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains permanently tacky. Such a material will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.
Adhesive, Room temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 20°-30°C (68°-86°F).
Adhesive, Separate application
A term used to describe an adhesive consisting of two parts, one part being applied to one substrate and the other part to the other substrate and the two brought together to form a joint.
Adhesive, solvent activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.
Any conductor next to another conductor either in the same multi-conductor cable layer or in adjacent layers.
The method for labeling, identification, documentation and usage needed to implement moves, additions and changes of the telecommunications infrastructure.
A location at which communications circuits are administered; that is, rearranged or rerouted by means of cross connections, interconnection, or information outlets.
The part of a premises distribution system that includes the distribution hardware components where you can add or rearrange circuits. These components include cross connects, interconnects, information outlets, and their associated patch cords and plugs. Also called "administration points". See also Cross Connect and Information Outlets (IO).
The measure of the ease with which an alternating current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.
Advanced Intelligent Networks (AIN)
Systems that allow a wireless user to make and receive phone calls while roaming in areas outside the user’s “home” network.
A type of installation in which the cable is connected to poles or towers by means of clamps or other attachment hardware.
Aging Stability Test
The test used to determine the flexibility of a cable after temperature cycling.
Air blown fiber (ABF)
An installation technique developed by British Telecom where micro ducts or “pipe cables” are installed, and then optical fibers or fiber bundles are blown into the cable with spans reaching 10,000 feet.
A telephone outside plant cable construction for aerial and duct installation in which the insulated conductors in the cable core are surrounded by air.
Air Core Cable
A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier.
Air handling plenum
A space within a building that is designed for the movement of environmental air, e.g., a space above a suspended ceiling or below an access floor.
The first polish of a ferrule or termini after the fiber has been cleaved. The lapping film is passed over the connector endface in the air to polish the fiber stub just above the ferrule endface.
Air Spaced Coaxial Cable
One in which air is essentially the dielectric material. A spirally wound synthetic filament, beads, or braided filaments may be used to center the conductor.
Denotes applications peculiar to aircraft and missiles or other systems designed for operation primarily within the earth's atmosphere. (MIL-STD)
Strands, cords and wire ropes made of special strength wire primarily for aircraft controls and miscellaneous uses of Aircraft Industry
Time spent talking on a cellular phone. This is usually billed to the subscriber on a per-minute basis.
An appliance for mating and holding two connector ferrules in alignment. Also known as a C-clip.
Aliphatic resin glue
Yellow glues which provide more grab for shorter clamp times, and offer better water resistance and heat resistance than traditional white glues.
All-optical network (AON)
A network that uses only optical components to produce, direct, condition, control, and connect optical signals.
A cable in which all interstices between conductors are filled with rubber compound.
A mechanical device shaped like alligator jaws used as a temporary connection on the sod of interconnections wire.
The designation of a band of frequencies for a specific radio service or services. The Federal Communications Commission and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration are responsible for frequency allocations in the US.
A mixture of two or more metals combined to achieve properties, such as a lower melting point or greater strength, that the individual metals do not possess.
A message on a digital output display containing letters, “alphas”, and numbers, “numerics”.
A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube.
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying.
A copolymer consisting of macromolecules comprising two species of monomeric units in alternating sequence. (IUPAC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Electric current that continually reverses its direction. It is expressed in cycles per second (hertz or Hz).
The voltage developed a cross a resistance or impedance through which alternating current is flowing.
An aluminum wire or group of wires not suitably insulated to carry electrical current.
Aluminum Oxide Film (ÅngströmLap ®)
When diamond film is not needed, like in many multimode applications, aluminum oxide is recommended. Some
The atmospheric conditions surrounding a given item. Normally in terms of factors which influence or modify, such as temperature, humidity, etc.
Temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. which exist in the area surrounding the bond, normally room temperature, atmospheric pressure, daylight, etc.
The temperature of the medium surrounding an object. Generally a lower temperature than the temperature at which the cable is operating.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The official American standards body through which standards are published and various other standards committees are accredited.
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
An organization that tests materials and attempts to set standards on various materials for industry.
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
A standard system for measuring wire gauge primarily used in the United States.
The maximum current an insulated wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding either the insulation or jacket material limitations. (Same as Current Carrying Capacity.)
Amps/Amperes/Ampacity/Rated Amperage -measurement of the flow rate of electricity. If you think in terms of water through a hose, amperage would be a measure of water volume flowing through the hose.
A measurement of electrical current or amount of electric charge per second in a circuit. Frequently shortened to Amp. Its symbol is the letter A but in formulas it is sometimes expressed as the letter I._
The magnetic intensity at any point near a current carrying conductor can be compute on the assumption that each infinitesimal length of the conductor produces at the point of an infinitesimal magnetic density. The resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum of the contributions of all the elements of the conductor.
Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)
The ratio of the optical power at the center of the laser line width to the optical power at a given distance, as measured using an optical spectrum analyzer with a set resolution bandwidth.
In adhesives, a bonding method that uses its own chemical reaction to complete the adhesion.
An adhesive that is kept in the uncured state by oxygen, as in air, and that cures in the absence of oxygen when exposed to metal ions, especially copper or iron.
The traditional method of transmitting voice signals where the radio wave is based on electrical impulses which occur when speaking into the phone. Today most cellular companies transmit in analog signals, but digital signal output is increasing.__1)Representation of data by continuously variable quantities.__2)A continuously variable audio or video signal.
A room which simulates a free-space environment by lining all surfaces, including the floor, with absorbing material to reduce reflections of sound or electromagnetic waves. A semi-anechoic chamber has absorbing materials on walls and ceiling. The floor is then reflective to create a ground-plane effect.
Angle of Advance
The angle between a line perpendicular to the axis of the cable and the axis of any one member or strand of the braid.
Angle of Refraction
Angle formed between a refracted ray and the normal to the surface. This angle lies in a common plane with the angle of incidence.
Angled physical contact (APC)
A ferrule endface at 8° that minimizes Fresnel reflections when in contact with another APC termination. APC polishes normally have a component reflectance value of 60-70 dB. They are most often used in analog, DWDM, and FTTx installations.
The fiber optic cores of a mated pair of connectors are held at an angle, either by mispolish, worn alignment sleeve, or contamination.
Any of a large number of synthetic dyes derived from aniline, usually obtained from coal tar.
An ionic polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are anions. (IUPAC)
Relief of mechanical stress through heat and gradual cooling. Annealing copper renders it less brittle.
To subject to high heat with subsequent cooling. When annealing copper, the act of softening the metal by means of heat to render it less brittle.
Wire which after drawdown has been heated and slowly cooled to remove the effects of cold working.
The process of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired micro-structure or obtaining desired physical, mechanical or other properties.
A signaling device, usually electrically operated, that gives an audible or visual signal (or both) when energized.
The electrode in a device that electrons flow out of to return to the circuit. In a battery or other source of direct current the anode is the negative terminal, but in a passive load it is the positive terminal._
An electrolytic process for producing a protective or decorative film on certain metals chiefly aluminum and magnesium.
A cylindrical connector design which provides keying or locking provisions to maintain positive orientation for accessory hardware.
The part of the crimping die normally stationary, which positions and supports the contact during crimping. Sometimes called "Nest".
As measured by an interferometer, when the radius of curvature of a connector’s endface polish is distorted enough to cause the fiber optic to appear off center.
Appliance Wire & Cable
A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.
A system, with its associated transmission method which is supported by telecommunications cabling.
The uppermost layer (layer 7) of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This layer is concerned with support to the user application and is responsible for managing the communication between applications, e.g. Email, File transfer, etc.
Application-specific optical fiber (ASOF)
Fibers built for specific applications such as those doped with erbium for use in fiber amplifiers or the high numerical aperture fibers used for manufacturing filters and gratings.
A class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is derived from merging of “aromatic polyamide”. They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.
Strength elements that provide tensile strength, support, and additional protection of fiber bundles. It is commonly referred to as Kevlar (a DuPont trademark).
In networks, it is how the components are connected to and operate with one another. The term “network architecture” focuses on how fiber optic system elements communicate including functional organization (services) and configuration (topology and communications). Network architectures are usually designed as to their protocols. B-PON, G-PON, EPON, GEPON, SONET, ATM, Ethernet, etc., are examples of network architectures.
Area of Conductor
The sized of a conductor cross section measured in circular mils, square inches, etc.
Protective covering, usually metal, used underneath plastic jackets to provide additional environmental protection in harsh environments.
Cable with metallic sheathing or rods placed under or between cable jackets to prevent rodents from damaging the internal cable elements.
Typically, connectors with multiple fibers in a small form factor housing, i.e., MPO, MTP, MT-RJ.
Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
A device that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a DWDM system.
Drawings that provide accurate depictions of cable running lines, pedestal locations, electronic sites, manholes, marker posts, etc., to aid with the management of cable assets and allow the facilities to be located, protected, maintained, and modified.
Technical resource area to receive answers on fiber optics, connectors, cable assembly, adhesives, lapping film, polymers and specialty products. Can be found at https://focenter.com/askfoc/
A group of materials or parts, including the adhesive, which has been placed together for bonding or which has been bonded together.
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together, such as in the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like. Discussion—The term assembly adhesive is commonly used in the wood industry to distinguish such adhesives (formerly called joint glues) from those used in making plywood (sometimes called veneer glues). It is applied to adhesives used in fabricating finished structures or goods, or subassemblies thereof, as differentiated from adhesives used in the production of sheet materials for sale as such, for example, plywood or laminates.
Also called Open Time. The time period from the application to adhesive until the final application of pressure. This term includes both Closed and Open Assembly Times.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
A high-speed transmission technology that uses existing copper wires and involved electronic equipment to send digital signals from the telephone company central office to the subscriber’s premises. It sends more information one way than the other, hence it is “asymmetric.”
Two or more signals sourced from independent clocks, therefore having different frequency and phase relations.
Asynchronous Data Transfer
A method of data transfer in which each alphabetic or numeric character (represented by 7 or 8 bits) is preceded by 'start' and 'stop' bits to delineate the 7/8 bit pattern from the ideal pattern which otherwise occupies the (digital) transmission medium.
A data transmission technique controlled by start and stop bits at each end of a character and characterized by an undetermined time interval between characters.
A regular macromolecule in which the configurational (base) units are not all identical. (IUPAC)
The loss of optical power, whether caused intrinsically (absorption, scattering, microbends, etc.), or extrinsically by components (connectors, splices, splitters, etc). Expressed as dB or dB/km (with fiber).
The reduction in optical power as it passes along a fiber, usually expressed in decibels (dB).
The change in attenuation of a coaxial cable after being subjected to specified temperature cycles and mechanical deformations.
Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (ACR)
The difference between attenuation and crosstalk, measured in dB, at a given frequency. Important characteristic in networking transmission to assure that signal sent down a twisted pair is stronger at the receiving end, after being attenuated, than are a
Stainless steels that have high ductility, low yield stress and relatively high ultimate tensile strength, when compared to typical carbon steel. Added alloys (such as Nickel and Chrome) help increase corrosion resistance, among other properties
Automatic protection switching (APS)
Utilizing optical monitoring equipment, a network can be automatically switched over to a secondary network when the original network experiences a higher than normal loss or becomes inoperable.
Automatic test equipment (ATE)
Test equipment that is computer programmed to perform measurements on a device without changing the test setup.
Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)
AVI is the automatic identification of vehicles through the use of readers installed in toll booths or gates and RF transponders attached to or stored inside vehicles.
Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)
A feature AVI that allows users to immediately locate commercial vehicles and fleets to reduce off-time and vehicle misuse. See Radiomobile division for more information on AVL.
A series of tests performed by a LAN Cable Tester activated by the AUTOTEST key. The content of a test series and the test limits are predefined by the selection of a Standard (e.g. Category 6), or a cable manufacturer’s test suite, or may be constructed by the test unit’s user.
Avalanche photodiode (APD)
A photodiode that takes advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrent to convert one photon to multiple electrons.
The American Wire Gauge round-conductor number that is used to designate a flat conductor with an equal cross-sectional area.
The incremental difference between an initial position and a final position resulting from a force applied along the axis of a component.
The wireline cellular carrier, usually the local telephone company, which operates on the frequencies of 869 to 894 MHz.
A 30-MHz personal-communications services carrier serving a major trading area in the 1870-to-1885 MHz frequency range paired with the 1954-to-1965-MHz range.
An intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material softens when heated and swells when in contact with certain liquids, but may not entirely fuse or dissolve. The resin in an uncured thermosetting adhesive is usually in this stage.
Back Mounted (rear mounting)
When a connector is mounted from the inside of a panel or box with its mounting flange inside the equipment.
Light reflected from the cleaved or polished end of a fiber caused by the difference of the refractive indices of air andglass. Back Reflectance is typically 4% of the incident light. It is expressed in dB relative to incident power.
Back Reflection (Fiber Optic)
A measure of the percentage of power reflected back by a discontinuity in a fiber optic line. It is expressed in dB.
Back reflection, optical return loss
Light reflected from the cleaved or polished end of a fiber caused by the difference of refractive indices of air and glass. Typically 4% of the incident light. Expressed in dB relative to incident power.
Back-Mounted (Rear Mounting)
A connector mounted from the inside of a panel or box with its mounting flange inside the equipment.
Used to support a boom or mast: or that section of a main cable, as on a suspension bridge, cable-way, etc., leading from the tower to the anchorage
The cabling used to connect entrance facilities, crossconnects, telecommunications closets, and equipment rooms. The backbone may consist of either interbuilding and/or intrabuilding cabling.
A local area network that connects computers’ input/output systems to shared storage devices. They may also be used for high data rate inter-computer data transfer.
An interconnection panel into which PC cards or other panels can be plugged. These panels come in a variety of designs ranging from a PC motherboard to individual connectors mounted in a metal frame. Panels lend themselves to automated wiring.
The loosely-used term covers optical return loss (ORL) for spans, reflectance for components, and Fresnel reflectance.
The ratio of the optical pulse power (not energy) at the OTDR output to the backscatter power at the near end of the fiber (z=0). This ratio is inversely proportional to the pulse width, because the optical pulse power is independent. It is expressed in dB.
The scattering of light in a fiber back toward the source, used to make OTDR measurements. Bandwidth: The range of signal frequencies or bit rate within which a fiber optic component, link or network will operate.
Any device added to the rear (wiring side) of a connector to enhance the connector's operational characteristics.
A mold used to form a covering over the backshell of a connector after it is connected to a cable.
A method of molding or bonding involving the application of fluid pressure, usually by means of air, steam, water, or vacuum, to a flexible cover which, sometimes in conjunction with the rigid die, completely encloses the material to be bonded.
Balance is the ratio of the differential signal output at either end of any pair to a common mode
A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground.
A cable having two identical conductors which carry voltages opposite in polarity and equal in magnitude with respect to ground.
Balanced Twisted Pair Cable
A cable consisting of one or more metallic symmetrical cable elements (twisted pairs or quads).
A device for matching impedance between a balanced to unbalanced line, usually twisted-pair and coaxial cable.
A range of optical spectrum allocated based on optical amplifiers. Six bands are specified by the ITU: O (original), E (enhanced), S (short), C (conventional), L (long), and U (ultra). These cover the optical spectrum from 1260 nm to 1675 nm.
A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification.
A circumferential color band applied to an insulated conductor at regular intervals for identification.
A characterization of the information caring capacity of a multimode optical fiber. It is expressed in terms of frequency and is often normalized to a unit length (e.g., MHz-km). The frequency range over which the connector or device can operate without degradation of performance. Also the information carrying capacity of digital systems.
An insulated wire used for the interconnection of selector switches in automatic telephone exchanges.
A conductor having no covering. A conductor with no coating or cladding on the copper.
The section of the terminal, splice or contact that accommodates the stripped conductor. (MIL-STD)
The section of the terminal, splice or contact that accommodates the conductor insulation. (MIL-STD)
A partition of electrically non conductive material which increases the electrical path between adjacent electrical circuits or an electrical circuit from ground.
The seal preventing the passage of moisture or gases through the insulator and the gap between insulator and center conductor or outer conductor of a connector or adapter.
The metal from which the connector, contact, or other piece part accessory is made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.
The metal from which the connector, contact or other metal accessory is made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.
Metal from which the connector components are made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited. Also called Basic Metal.
The fixed transmitter/receiver device that a mobile radio transceiver establishes a communication link with in order to gain access to the public-switched telephone network.
A network in which the entire bandwidth of the transmission medium is used as a single digital signal. Unlike broadband, no modulation techniques are used.
Transmission of a digital or analog signal at its original frequencies, i.e., a signal in its original form, not changed by modulation.
A testing configuration that appeared in older editions of the ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Standard. It has been replaced by Permanent Link test configuration in the 568-B Standard that replaced 568-A. See PERMANENT LINK.
Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
The simplest form of network access available on the ISDN (integrated services digital network). The BRI comprises 2B + D channels for carriage of signaling and user information.
Basic Trading Area (BTA)
A service area designed by Rand McNally and adopted by the Federal Communications Commission to promote the rapid deployment and ubiquitous coverage of personal communications services. BTA’s generally cover a city and its surrounding area. They are a component of a major trading area. There are 493 BTA’s in the US.
Metal from which the connector components are made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.
A single conductor cable, insulated or uninsulated, used for carrying current from batteries to the point power is needed.
The most basic unit of data transmission speed, one baud represents one signal state change per second. It is often confused with bits per second (bps) because they were at one time very similar. By using current data compression and modulation techniques, many times the baud rate in bits per second can be achieved.
A locking prong and slot interconnect device. The mechanical latching mechanism for the ST-type connector.
A quick coupling device for plug and receptacle connectors, accomplished by rotation of a cam operating device designed to bring the connector halves together.
Bayonet fiber-optic connector (BFOC)
The formal name for the ST connector, a specific slotted twistlock connector with 2.5-mm ferrule.
A model simulating the hydrodynamic properties of a chain macromolecule consisting of a sequence of beads, each of which offers hydrodynamic resistance to the flow of the surrounding medium and is connected to the next bead by a rigid rod which does not. The mutual orientation of the rods is random. (IUPAC)
A model simulating the hydrodynamic properties of a chain macromolecule consisting of a sequence of beads, each of which offers hydrodynamic resistance to the flow of the surrounding medium and is connected to the next bead by a spring which does not contribute to the frictional interaction but which is responsible for the elastic and deformational properties of the chain. The mutual orientation of the springs is random. (IUPAC)
A passive device that uses optical lenses with reflective coatings to control the split ratio and divide an optical beam into two or more beams.
Belled Mouth (Bellmouth)
The flared or wide entrance of a terminal splice or contact barrel to permit easier insertion of the conductor.
The raised portion at the front and/or back of the wire barrel crimp that provides a gradual entrance and exit for the wire strands without causing damage.
Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors.
Bend insensitive fiber (BIF)
Single-mode fibers that have been modified to demonstrate reduced bend radius characteristics without attenuation changes. Specified in the ITU-T G.657 standard.
Increased attenuation due to macrobends (curvature of fiber) or microbends (small distortions in the fiber) coupling light energy from the fiber core to the cladding.
Radius of curvature that a fiber optic or metallic cable can bend without any adverse effects.
Loss in fiber caused by stress on the fiber bent around a restrictive radius. Bit-error rate (BER): The fraction of data bits transmitted that are received in error.
A relatively expensive contact material with properties superior to brass or phosphor bronze. It is used for contact applications requiring repeated extraction and reinsertion because of its resistance to fatigue at high operating temperatures.
A phenolic-bodied, threaded, spring-loaded, non-keyed connector with a cone-shaped alignment area.
A broadband dipole antenna used to measure and produce electric fields from approximately 30 MHz to 300 MHz.
A device that sends information in one direction and receives information from the opposite direction.
A winding made non-inductive by winding together (as one wire) two wires carrying current in opposite directions.
A flat spring contact with lengthwise slotting which is used in a printed circuit edge connector. (MIL-STD)
Billion Conductor Feet (BCF)
A quantity derived by multiplying the number of conductors in a cable by the amount of cable. Usually used to indicate plant capacity or an annual requirement.
A combination of biconical and log periodic antenna with an automatic crossover network with a frequency range from 26MHz to 2 GHz.
A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). It can include wire with a steel core clad wire, or plated or coated wire.
In adhesive compounds , a component of an adhesive composition that is primarily responsible for its mechanical strength and adhesion.
The refraction of light in two slightly different directions to form two rays; the phenomenon can be used to locate stress in a transparent material.
Binary Digit. The smallest unit of data (and most basic) for data communications. It can have a value of a one (mark) or a zero (space).
Bit Error Rate (BER)
A measure of quality of a digital transmission line, either quoted as a percentage, or more usually as a ratio, typically 1 error in 10E8 or 10E9 bits carried. The lower the number or errors, the better quality the line.
Bit error rate tester (BERT)
Test equipment that measures the bit error rate (BER) of digital transmission systems.
An elevation of the surface of a substrate, somewhat resembling in shape a blister on the human skin; its boundaries may be indefinitely outlined and it may have burst and become flattened.
1) A group of transmitted data, typically framed with control characters and having a fixed size, such as 256, 512, 4096, etc; 2) A portion of a macromolecule, comprising many constitutional units, that has at least one feature which is not present in the adjacent portions. (IUPAC)
A copolymer that is a block polymer. In a block copolymer, adjacent blocks are constitutionally different, i.e., each of these blocks comprises constitutional units derived from different characteristic species of monomer or with different composition or sequence distribution of constitutional units. (IUPAC)
A curing or hardening agent temporarily rendered unreactive, which can be reactivated as desired by physical or chemical means.
Creating a physical barrier to keep moisture-repellent gel in loose tube cables from migrating or flowing out of the buffer tubes into splice trays; An undesired adhesion between touching layers of material such as occurs under moderate pressure during storage or use.
Outer cable covering applied by controlled inflation of the cured jacket tube then pulling the cable through it.
A technology that enables data connections between electronic devices such as desktop computers, wireless phones, electronic organizers and printers in the 2.4 GHz range.
Interface of the adhesive and the substrate; The attachment between an adhesive and an adherend; To join adherends by means of an adhesive.
Amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces; The unit load applied in tension, compression, flexure, peel, impact, cleavage, or shear, that is required to break an adhesive assembly with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond.
An insulated wire treated to facilitate adherence to materials such as potting compounds. Also, magnet wires used in making coils when bonding the turns together is desired .
A connector assembly in which the components are bonded together using an electrically appropriate adhesive in a sandwich structure to provide sealing against moisture.
Cable consisting of pre-insulated conductors or multi-conductor components laid-in parallel and bonded into a flat cable.
An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together.
Bonded Flat Cable
Flat cable consisting of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and bonded together: application in electronics, telecommunications or computers.
The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed on it.
An insulated or uninsulated conductor forming part of the cable assembly which is used for the purpose of connecting non-current carrying parts of electrical equipment to a system grounding conductor.
(1) Protective covering over a cable, wire or connector in addition to the normal jacketing or insulation. (2) A form placed around wire termination of a multiple-contact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens.
Battery Feed, Over Voltage (protection from lightning and accidental power line contact), Ringing, Supervision, Codec (A/D interconversion, also low pass audio filtering), Hybrid (directional coupler, 2-wire to 4-wire inter-conversation), Testing
1)A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in cylindrical form to form a covering over one or more wires. __2)Flexible conductor made of a woven or braided assembly of fine wires. (MIL-STD)__3)A woven protective outer covering over a conductor or cable. It may be composed of any filamentary materials such as cotton, glass, nylon, tinned copper, silver, or asbestos fibers.
1)The smaller of the two angles formed by the shielding strand and the axis of the cable being shielded.__2)The angle between the axis of the cable and the axis of any one member or strand of the braid. (Also known as the angle of advance)
A spool or bobbin on a braider that holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The carrier revolves during braiding operations.
A calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a braid or shield covers the surface of the underlying component.
The number of strainds used to make up one carrier. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobboin and lie parallet in the finished braid.
Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers.
Wire used in mobile-home, travel and truck trailers to supply current to the electrical braking system.
A low cost connector material which is an excellent electric conductor. Brass reaches its yield point at low deflection force, thus it deforms easily and fatigues slowly. Used in connector bodies and male contacts.
The joining of ends of two wires, rods or groups of wires with a nonferrous filler metal at temperatures above 800oF (427oC).
Measure of force needed to initiate movement of an unseated fastener in a loosening direction.
Breakdown of Insulation
Failure of an insulation resulting in a flow of current through the insulation. It may be caused by the application of too high voltage or by defects or decay.
The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors will break down or arc over.
Breaking Strength (aggregate wire)
The sum of the breaking strength in tension of all the wires of a wire rope when the wires are tested individually
1)The point at which a conductor or group of conductors is separated from a multiconductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable.__2)A breakout is the common name given to the exit point of a conductor or number of conductors from a cable of which they are a part. This point is usually harnessed or sealed with some synthetic rubber compound.
Multi-fiber cable constructed in the tight buffered design with individually jacketed fibers. Designed for ease of connectorization and rugged applications for intra- or inter-building requirements.
A kit that provides a breakout cable structure for non-breakout structures (with one fiber per tube).
A two-part wire rope sling attached to a single part line. The legs of the sling are spread to divide and equalize the load
Wire rope made of wires that are not coated with zinc, tin, or any other protective metal
In stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), the laser signal creates periodic regions of altered refractive index; that is, a periodic grating that travels as an acoustic wave away from the signal. This effect can result in a noisy and unstable forward-propagating signal, since much of the optical energy is backscattered.
British Standard Wire Gauge
A modification of the Birmingham Wire Gauge and the legal standard of Great Britain for all wires. Also known as Standard Wire Gauge (SWG), New British Standard (NBS), English Legal Standard and Imperial Wire Guide.
The temperature below which a material becomes brittle, often measured by a cold impact test.
A transmission facility that has a bandwidth (capacity) capable of carrying numerous voice, video and data channels simultaneously. Each channel operates on a different frequency. Cable TV is a broadband transmission.
Personal-communications-services systems offered in 30-MHz blocks at 1.9-GHz; voice-capable versus narrowband personal communications services, which is paging oriented.
Broadband PON (B-PON)
The first FTTx standard issued as ITU-T G.983, the B-PON standard was designed for the bidirectional transmission of ATM cells over G.652 single-mode fiber at a distance of 20 kilometers using wavelength independent couplers (splitters) with split rates of up to 1:32. Originally defined by the FSAN S652 document.
Message transmission which may be read by a large number of destinations rather than just one. Satellite is an example.
A protective coating over an optical fiber. A soft material extruded tightly over the fiber coating, mechanically isolates individual fiber.
A protective material with no optical function that covers and protects a fiber. A secondary plastic coating adhered around the coating of the optical fiber to provide additional protection against damage. Normally 250 or 900 microns.
Part of a loose tube cable structure, buffer tubes accommodate 250-micron coated fibers in a loose configuration. The buffer tubes can be filled with gel, powder, or tapes to resist moisture intrusion.
A motorized device for removing flat cable insulation by means of buffing wheels that melt the insulation and brush it away from the conductors. Also called Abrasion Stripper.
Building Backbone Cable
A cable that connects the building distributor to a floor distributor. Building backbone cables may also connect floor distributors in the same building.
A distributor in which the building backbone cable(s) terminate(s) and at which connections to the campus backbone cable(s) may be made.
Building Entrance Area
A space in which the joining of inter- or intra-building telecommunications backbone facilities takes place. An entrance room may also serve as an equipment room.
Building Entrance Facility
A facility that provides all necessary mechanical and electrical services, that complies with all relevant regulations, for the entry of telecommunications cables into a building.
Building local exchange carrier (BLEC)
A network service provider that contracts with real estate, property owners, and building managers to provide broadband services within multiple tenant units or multiple dwelling units.
Insulated wires used in building for light and power, 600 volts or less, usually not exposed to outdoor environment.
Slight overfeed results in bulging at the splice point. Bulging is not always lossy. Splice strength requires a solid fusion joint; monitor splice strength if you are reducing feed to eliminate bulging. Also known as a fat splice.
A term used to define a mounting style of connectors. Bulkhead connectors are designed to be inserted into a panel cutout from the rear (component side) or front side of the panel.
Conductors twisted together with the same lay and direction without regard to geometric pattern.
Bunch Stranded Conductor
All strands having a random position within the conductor. No distinct layers are formed.
A group of strands twisted together in a random manner and the same direction without regard to geometric arrangement of specific strands.
Several individual fibers contain within a single jacket or buffer tube. Also a group of buffered fibers distinguished in some fashion from another group in the same cable core.
Cable placed by trenching, direct burial, plowing, boring, or installation into underground ducts.
A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground round conduit. Also called Direct Burial Cable.
Buried Distribution and Service Wires
Telephone wires which are designed to provide buried service extensions from distribution cables to the subscriber's protector.
The ability of a tape to resist damage when force is evenly applied perpendicularly to the surface of the tape.
Wire used to connect two terminals insode of an electrical unit. Consists of a common transmission path with a number of nodes attached to it. Sometimes referred to as linear network topology; An electrical connection tying two or more points together. A bus can be serial or parallel and can carry both dynamic signals or DC voltage.
BUS Interface Unit (BUI)
The data-circuit terminating equipment which provides access to a LAN. It may also provide packet assembly/disassembly functions. May be an add-on card or a separate box.
A topology based on all communicating devices being attached to a common medium. Various access methods are used including CSMA/CD and Token Passing. Typically bus networks carry data in the millions of bits per second data rate.
A local area network (LAN) topology in which endpoints connect to a single wire or fiber, or set of wires or fibers, at any point. The Ethernet LAN is one example.
A communication system that adds wireless capability to an in-building or campus communications network. Also known as Wireless PBX or Enterprise PCS.
A splice where two wires from opposite ends butt against each other, or against a stop, in the center of a splice.
The contact achieved when two conductors come together end-to-end, but do not overlap, with their axis in line.
Crimping dies so designed that the nest and indentor touch at the end of the crimping cycle. Also called "Bottoming Dies" (MIL-STD)
Button Conveyor Rope
Wire ropes to which buttons or discs are attached at regular intervals to move material in a trough
Buy American Act
Federal legislation governing the requirements for domestically manufactured products used in federally funded procurement contracts
A binary string operated as a unit. The byte is usually shorter than a computer word and often is used to represent a character. Byte is used colloquially to refer to eight bits or binary digits.
The C-band is the “conventional” DWDM transmission band, occupying the 1530 to 1565 nm wavelength range, as specified by the ITU-T G.692. Most EDFAs operate in the C-band.
A 30-MHz personal-communications-services carrier serving a basic trading area in the 1895-to-1910-MHz range paired with 1975 to 1990 MHz.
The final stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material is relatively insoluble and infusible. Certain thermosetting resins in a fully cured adhesive layer are in this stage.
1)Either a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another (multiple-conductor cable).__2)A group of individually insulated conductors in twisted or parallel configuration under a common sheath.__3) One or more conductors within a protective sheath. See also coaxial cable, twisted pairs cable
Cable Bend Radius
The radius that a fiber can be bent before risking increased attenuation or fiber breaks.
A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle; A mechanical clamp attached to the cable side of the connector to support the cable or wire bundle, provide strain relief and absorb vibration and shock otherwise transmitted by the cable to the contact/wire connection. (MIL-STD)
Cable Clamp Adapter
A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp.
Cable Core Binder
A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together.
The ratio of cable installed into a conduit/trunking against the theoretical maximum capacity of the conduit/trunking.
The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices in a cable to make the finished cable round.
A string of cables and/or wires which transmit informational signals or operating currents (energy). The cables are bound together by clamps, cable ties, cable lacing, sleeves, electrical tape, conduit, a weave of extruded string, or a combination thereof.
The protective outer covering of wire or optical cable. Common materials include polyethylene (PE), polyurethane (PU), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Teflon (plenum).
Cable Plant, Fiber Optic
The combination of fiber optic cable sections, connectors and splices forming the optical path between two terminal devices.
The vertical or horizontal supports, usually made of aluminum or steel, that are attached to a ceiling or wall. Cables are laid in and fastened to the rack. Sometimes called trays.
An assembly of one or more conductors within an enveloping sheath, constructed so as to permit use of the conductors singly or in groups.
Cable Sealing Clamp
A device consisting of a gland nut and sealing member designed to seal around a single jacket cable. (MIL-STD)
A covering over the optical fiber or conductor assembly that may include one or more metallic members, strength members or jackets.
Cable Sheilding Clamp
A device consisting of a sealing member and cable support designed to terminate the screen (shield) of an electrical cable. (MIL-STD)
A conductive layer of material located just under the cable’s outer sheath which is designed to increase the cable’s immunity to outside electrical noise interference. It may be constructed of metal foil or braided strands.
A ladder, trough, solid-bottom or channel raceway system intended for, but not limited to, the support of telecommunications media (i.e., cable).
Compression molding machine used to repair cable jacketing that has had apart removed for splicing, for adding connectors or other devices, or for replacing damaged sections.
System for direct burial in which a flexible conduit is extruded over electrical cables for a single pre-assembled unit.
Cable-Laid Wire Rope
A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope
A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle.
1) A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis separated by a dielectric. 2) A cable in the form of a central wire surrounded by a conductor tubing or sheathing that serves as shield and return.
1) Any cable with two smooth or corrugated but essentially flat surfaces. 2) Two or more parallel, round or flat, conductors that are contained in the insulating base material.
Cable, Flat, Margin
The distance between the reference edge of a flat cable and athe nearest edge of the first conductor.
1) A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held by adhesive film laminate. 2) A flat cable with round conductors.
Cable, Star Quad
A multi-core radio or television relay cable in which the conductors are arranged in quads and each quad consists of four conductors twisted together, the diagonally opposite conductors constituting a pair circuit. Also known as spiral four cable.
Cable/Harness Outdoor Use
Outdoor Use Cables/Harnesses: Product expected to withstand elements of wheather.
1) A combination of all cables, wire, cords and connecting hardware; 2) Twisting together two or more insulated conductors by machine to form a cable. In fiber optics, a method by which a group or bundle of fibers is mechanically assembled. 3) A system of telecommunications cables, cords and connecting hardware that can support the connection of information technology equipment. The twisting together of two or more insulated conductors to form an element.
Used in formulas for calculating the overall diameter of cable. D=fd where D=cable diameter, f=factor, and d=diameter of one conductor.
The building and grounds of a complex (i.e. a university, college, industrial park or military establishment). A premises containing more than one building adjacent or near to one another.
Campus Backbone Cable
The communications cable that is part of the Campus Backbone Subsystem and runs between building. There are four methods of installing campus backbone cable: in-conduit (in underground conduit), direct-buried (in trenches), aerial (on poles), and in-tunnel (in stream tunnels). A cable that connects the campus distributor to the building backbone distributor(s). Campus backbone cables may also connect building cabling distributors directly.
Campus Cable Entrance
The point at which Campus Backbone Subsystem cabling (aerial, direct-buried, or underground) enters a building.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
A non-profit independent organization which operates a listing service for electrical and electronic materials and equipment. The Canadian counterpart of the Underwriters Laboratories.
1)Storage of electrically separated charges between two plates having different potentials. The value depends largely on the surface area of the plates and the distance between them.__2)That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics which permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. Its value is expressed as the ratio of a quantity of electricity to a potential difference, in farads (microfarads). A capacitance value is always positive.
Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them.
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
The capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, short circuited to ground.
The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of a capacitor, cable or circuit. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/6.28fC where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads.
The inequalities of the capacitances of the wires of a telephone circuit to other wires or to earth which will produce interference. Various forms of unbalance arise according to the circuits concerned in the measurement,
Capacitance Unbalance to Ground
An inequality of capacitance between the g round capacitance of the conductors of a pair which results in a pickup of external source energy, usually from power transmission lines.
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
The capacitance between two conductors with all other conductors, including shield, short circuited to ground.
Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the capacitance between them.
Capacitive Reactance (Xc)
The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of the cable or circuit. Measured in ohms.
Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. The capacitance is determined by the area of the surfaces, type of dielectric and spacing between the conducting surfaces.
The phenomenon of liquid rising in a small interstice due to surface tension. The effect of surface tension that draws a liquid into a small opening.
The electromagnetic wave frequency selected to transmit information. Optical carrier frequency is from the infrared, visible range or ultraviolet spectrum areas.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) used by LocalTalk networks. Unlike CSMA/CD, in this method the sending node requests permission to send from communications. It defines protocols for user or applications programs.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Network access method in which nodes contend for the right to send data. If two or more nodes attempt to transmit at the same time, they abort their transmission until a random time period of microseconds has transpired and then attempt to resend.
A continuous signal, upon which is modulated the data or other signal that is to be transmitted.
Carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)
A quantification of analog system noise. The ratio, expressed in decibels, of the level of the carrier to that of the noise in the receiver bandwidth before any nonlinear process such as amplitude limiting and detection takes place.
An aqueous colloidal dispersion of casein that may be prepared with or without heat, may contain modifiers, inhibitors, and secondary binders to provide specific adhesive properties, and includes a subclass, usually identified as casein glue, that is based on a dry blend of casein, lime, and sodium salts, mixed with water and prepared without heat.
A reactive material added to accelerate adhesive drying. Substance added in small quantities to promote a reaction, while remaining unchanged itself.
CATEGORY 3 (CAT 3)
Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3 or station wire, and less commonly known as VG or Voice-grade (as, for example, in 100BaseVG), is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable used in telephone wiring.
CATEGORY 4 (Cat 4)
Category 4, commonly known as Cat 4, is a cable that consists of four unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) copper wires with a data rate of 16 Mbit/s and performance of up to 20 MHz. It is used in telephone networks which can transmit voice and data up to 16 Mbit/s.
CATEGORY 5 (CAT 5)
Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video. This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.
CATEGORY 5e (CAT 5e)
Category 5e specification improves upon the category 5 specification by tightening some crosstalk specifications and introducing new crosstalk specifications that were not present in the original category 5 specification. The bandwidth of category 5 and 5e is the same (100 MHz) and the physical cable construction is the same, and the reality is that most Cat5 cables meet Cat5e specifications, though it is not tested or certified as such
CATEGORY 6 (CAT 6)
Category 6 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 6, is a standardized cable for Gigabit Ethernet and other network physical layers that is backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Compared with Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Cat 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise.
CATEGORY 7 (CAT 7)
Category 7 cable standard has been created to allow 10 Gigabit Ethernet over 100 m of copper cabling (also, 10 Gbit/s Ethernet now is typically run on Cat 6A). The cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like the earlier standards. Category 7 cable can be terminated either with 8P8C compatible GG45 electrical connectors which incorporate the 8P8C standard or with TERA connectors. When combined with GG45 or TERA connectors, Category 7 cable is rated for transmission frequencies of up to 600 MHz.
Category 7A cables, introduced by ISO 11801 Edition 2 Amendment 2 (2010), are defined at frequencies up to 1000 MHz, suitable for multiple applications including CATV (862 MHz). Each pair offers 1200 MHz of bandwidth.
Category 8, which will use the standard 8P8C connector. Category 8 should be fully backward compatible with Category 6A and below, and will be covered by ANSI/TIA-568-C.2-1 "Specifications for 100? Category 8 Cabling".
The electrode in a device that electrons flow into. In a battery or other source of direct current the cathode is the positive terminal, but in a passive load it is the negative terminal._
an ionic polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are cations. (IUPAC)
A sheet of material employed singly or in pairs in hot or cold pressing of assemblies being bonded.
Distribution system that uses the space between the false or suspended ceiling and the structural ceiling for housing horizontal cable routes.
The geographic area served by a single low-power transmitter/receiver. A cellular system’s service area is divided into multiple "cells". Cells can vary in size depending on terrain, capacity demands, etc. By controlling the transmission power, the radio frequencies assigned to one cell can be limited to the boundaries of that cell.
A fast packet switching technique which uses fixed-length cells. Generic name for ATM, SMDS and BISDN.
The location where communications equipment is located for each cell. A cell site usually includes antennas, a support structure for those antennas, and communications equipment to connect the site to the rest of the wireless system.
A method of increasing the capacity of a wireless system by subdividing or splitting cells into two or more smaller cells.
Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)
Introduced in 1992 by McCaw Cellular, IBM and a group of eight other major cellular companies, CDPD uses the idle time in the analog cellular-telephone system to transmit packetized data at rates up to 19.2 kb/s.
Insulating material in foamed or sponge form with the cells closed or interconnected.
A material containing many small cells dispersed throughout it. The cells may be either open or closed.
Expanded or foam, consists of individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a plastic medium, resulting in a desirable reduction of the dielectric constant.
Expanded or "foam" polyethylene consisting of individual closed cells suspended in a polyethylene medium. Often found as dielectric material in coaxial cable.
Center wavelength (CW)
The nominal value operating wavelength in a laser; thereby, the wavelength defined by a peak mode measurement where the effective optical power resides. Also, the average of the two wavelengths measured at half amplitude points of the power spectrum in lasers and LEDs.
A material located in the middle of a cable that provides extra strength and anti-buckling properties.
The place where communications common carriers terminate customer lines and locate switching equipment that interconnects those lines.
Central strength member (CSM)
A semi-rigid, fibered glass or metallic rod located in the center of a multifiber cable assembly. Usually referred to as dielectric, it provides a directional form for wrapping and stability. This inhibits the buffers from being damaged (stressing the fibers) during the bending of the cable.
A cabling configuration from the work area to a centralized cross-connect using pull-through cables, an interconnect or splice in the telecommunications room.
Certificate of Compliance (C of C)
A certificate which is normally generated by a Quality Control Department, which shows that the product being shipped meets customer's specifications.
Certified Test Report (CTR)
A report providing actual test data on a cable. Tests are normally run by a Quality Control Department, which shows that the product being shipped conforms to test specifications.
the whole part of part of a macromolecule (or oligomer molecule or block) comprising a sequence of constitutional units between two boundary constitutional units, each of which may be either an end-group or a branch point. Except in linear single-strand macromolecules, the definition of the chain may be somewhat arbitrary. A cyclic macromolecule has no end groups but may nevertheless be regarded as chain. Where appropriate, definitions relating to "macromolecule" may also be applied to "chain". (IUPAC)
a chain reaction in which the growth of a polymer chain proceeds exclusively by reaction(s) between monomer(s) and reactive site(s) on the polymer chain such that the reactive site(s) are regenerated on the same polymer chain by the end of each growth step. A chain polymerization consists of initiation and propagation reactions, and may also include termination and chain transfer reactions. The adjective "chain" in "chain polymerization" denotes "chain reaction". In a chain polymerization, the average degree of polymerization remains constant with monomer conversion (e.g., in steady-state, radical polymerizations) or may increase with monomer conversion (e.g., in the formation of living polymers). (IUPAC)
A material added during the polymerization process to terminate or control the degree of the reaction. This could result in soft sealants, or higher elongation.
A chemical reaction, usually occurring during chain polymerizations, in which the activity of the kinetic-chain carrier is transferred from the growing macromolecule or oligomer molecule to another molecule or another part of the same molecule. Chain transfer to another part of the same molecule is often termed backbiting. (IUPAC)
The preventing of the proper coalescence of the adhesive film due to low temperatures of the air, wood or adhesive.
The current produced when a D.C. voltage is first applied to conductors of an unterminated cable. It is caused by the capacitive reactance of the cable, and decreases exponentially with time.
A communications path or the signal sent over that path. Through multiplexing several channels, voice channels can be transmitted over an optical channel.
The Channel Link includes up to 90 m (295 ft) of horizontal cable, a work area patchcord, a telecommunications outlet/connector, an optional transition point or consolidation connector, and two connections in the telecommunications room. When a maximum horizontal length of 90 m is used, then the total length of the patchcords shall not exceed 10 m (33 ft). For other lengths of horizontal cabling, refer to ANSI/EIA/EIA-568-B.2.
Channel Service Unit
A device that interfaces a digital telephone line to a multiplexer or other digital device for high-speed communications.
Character Oriented Protocol
A communications protocol that responds to special control characters as opposed to individual bit values for function control.
Characteristic Impedance is the measure of a transmission medium’s impedance throughout its length and over a swept frequency spectrum. When terminating transmission media, it is important to match its Characteristic Impedance so as to minimize reflections.
The current produced when a DC voltage is first applied to conductors of an unterminated cable. It is caused by the capacitive reactance of the cable, and decreases exponentially with time.
The ability of the insulation to withstand exposure to and resist damage by chemicals and substances. Exposure can range from immersion to occasional contact. Six basic types of chemicals are: Acid: can be organic or inorganic; have a tendency to dissociate in water to partially or completely ionized in solution; typical organic acids are citric acid, carbonic acid, hydrogen cyanide, lactic acid and salicylic acid; typical inorganic acids are sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocholir acid. Alchols: organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, in which R represents an alkyl group and -OH represents one or more hudroxl groups; typical compounds are methanol, ethanol, glycols and isopropanol; used in antiseptics, cough syrups, medications, cleaners, coating, shellac, dyes, inks, fuel additives, cosmetics, perfumes and as base materials for plasticizers synthetic lubricants. Aliphatic hydrocarbons; organic compounds whose carbon atoms are joined in straight or branched chains instead of rings; typical compoiuns are mineral spirits, paint thinner, petroleum distillate, and cyclohexane; found in oil and alkyd based coatings, pesticides, furniture oils, cleaners and som cosmetics. Alkalis: hydroxides of an alkali metal (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium); easily soluble in water and form basic solutions, neutralizes acids, forming salts and water; typical alkalis are sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. Aromatic hydrocarbons: organic compounds that contain at least one ring of six carbon atoms, each joined to at least two other carbon atoms; typical compounds are toluene, xylene, phenol, benzene, and styrene; found in enamel paints, paint strippers, some lacquer coatings, in gaseoline, in engine cleaners, in styrenic plastics, phenolic resins, creosol perservatives and some pesticides. Oils: describes a variety of greasy fluid substances that are typically viscous liquids at room temperature, less dense than water, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and usually flammable; the wide range of compositions make generalizations not useful, but they can be grouped; groupings would be petroleum/hydrocarbons, fats/oils, and volatile oils; petroleum/hydrocarbons are used as fuels, solvents, and lubricants; fats/oils are used in soaps, lubricants. There are other additional types not listed.
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center. Provides emergency information on materials involved in transportation accidents.
Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)
A polymerized ethylene resin that has been treated or combined with chlorine or a chlorine compound; A synthetic rubber jacketing compound.
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by Dupont under the tradename of Hypalon.
Chromatic Dispersion (CD)
Spreading of a light pulse caused by the difference in refractive indices at different lengths; The variation in the velocity of light (group velocity) as a function of wavelength. It causes pulses of a modulated laser source to broaden when traveling within the fiber, up to a point where pulses overlap and bit error rate increases. CD is a limiting factor in high-speed transmission and must be properly compensated, which implies proper testing. A combination of material and waveguide dispersion.
The relocation of an individual or a group of individuals within a building such that the workspace or services to the workspace require change.
A complete path over which electrons can flow from the negative terminals of a voltage source through parts and wires to the positive terminals of the same voltage source. When the continuity of the circuit is broken it is called an open circuit: when con
Circuit-switched data involves keeping a circuit open between users for the duration of a connection.
The area of a circle one mil [0.001 in] in diameter; 7.845 x 10¨7 sq. in. Used in expressing wire cross sectional area.
Circular Mil Area (CMA)
The square of a conductor diameter in mils, of thousandths of an inch. Example a 30 AWG conductor has a diameter of 10 mils and a CMA of 100. Used to determine conductor sizes.
The type of crimp where the crimping dies completely surround a barrel, resulting in symmetrical indentations in the barrel. (MIL-STD)
The low refractive index optical coating surrounding the core of a fiberoptic cable that prevents light from escaping the core. The cladding guides light along the core.
Cladding (Fiber Optic)
A layer of glass (or other material) surrounding the core of a fiber, forming the conduit that carries the light through the fiber. It has a refractive index slightly lower than the core.
A series of cold clamps arranged and used like a Ferris wheel. This permits a large number of panels to be clamped and stored within a small area.
The period of time required for a joint to gain enough strength to permit it to be removed from pressure with no decrease in long-term strength.
Tying tapes, lacing cords, and flexible sleevings which are used for wire and cable bundling, harnessing, and holding. Other devices include plastic ties or clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing, and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) rates the clamping voltage of surge protectors. The lower the rating, the better the protection.
In an adhesively bonded joint, a separation in the joint caused by wedge or other crack-opening type action.
The force per unit width of bond line required to produce progressive separation by wedge or other crack-opening type action of two adherends.
A technique where an optical fiber is scratched to produce flat end surfaces that are perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fiber. See scribe.
Cleave and crimp
A connector installation technique, also known as a no-polish connector. The plug is installed onto the cable with the optic protruding from the end. The cable is crimped to the connector and the optic is cleaved as close to the connector endface as possible.
A device consisting of a scribing blade, usually made from either diamond or tungsten carbide, used to score a fiber in order to break it without causing a fracture, hackles or angular irregularities. Also known as a cleaver or scribe tool.
A technique by which processing can be distributed between nodes requesting information (clients) and those maintaining data (servers).
In data communications, a device that generates precisely spaced timing pulses used for synchronizing transmissions and recording elapsed times.
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying.
Clorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon.
Closed Assembly Time
Period of assembly time when the adhesive film is not exposed to the air, but prior to the time that pressure has been applied.
Closed cell material
A cellular material in which substantially all cells in the mass are closed cells.
Closed End Splice
An insulated splice in which two or more wires overlap and enter the splice from the same end of the barrel.
A contact or contact cavity design in the insert or body of the connector which limits the size or position of the mating contact or printed circuit board to a predetermined dimension. (MIL-STD)
Closed Entry Contact
A specially designed connector interface which controls the entry of the male pin from damaging the female contact.
SYSTIMAX® SCS location for hardware, conduits, power panels, and electronics, such as multiplexers and concentrators.
An enclosed space for housing telecommunications equipment, cable terminations, and cross-connect cabling. The closet is the recognized location of the cross-connect between the backbone and horizontal facilities.
An operation where all leads are to be covered and the jacket insulations is captured by a type of hood or cover.
The siting of two or more separate companies’ wireless antennas on the same support structure.
Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM)
Applies to greater separation of wavelengths than DWDM. In single-mode applications, CWDM defines a 20-nm separation from 1471 nm to 1611 nm. With multimode fibers, the wavelengths are 778, 800, 825, and 850 nm.
A material applied to the surface of a conductor to prevent environmental deterioration, facilitate soldering or improve electrical performance.
A cable that consists of two conductors laid concentrically along the same axis. One conducting wire is surrounded by a insulator, which is in turn surrounded by the other, outer conductor. The whole cable is wrapped in a protective plastic sheathing. Coaxial is frequently shortened to Coax (Co-ax)_
Coaxial Cable (Coax)
1)A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.__2)A wide-band cable consisting of an inner conductor a dielectric and a concentric outer shield. Coaxial cable is usually specified as to characteristic impedance, frequency response and propagation delay.__3)A cable consisting of one center conductor to carry a signal, surrounded concentrically (coaxially) by an insulating dielectric and a separate outer conductor (braid or metal jacket) which acts as a shield for the signal.
A contact having two conducting surfaces, a center contact and a coaxially placed sleeve.
A transmission line consisting of a center conductor suspended in a hollow cylindrical tube with or without a dielectric support. The hollow cylindrical tube is called the outer conductor.
CODE-Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
CDMA is a digital technology that uses a low-power signal "spread" across a wide bandwidth. With CDMA a phone call is assigned a code rather than a certain frequency. Using the identifying code and a low-power signal, a large number of callers can use the same group of channels. Some estimates indicate CDMA’s capacity increase over analog may be as much as 20 to one. The Telecommunications Industry Association has awarded CDMA inter-standard approval (IS-95).
Coefficient of expansion
The coefficient of linear expansion is the ratio of the change in length per degree to the length at 0°C.
Lasers and LEDs emit coherent light waves that are in phase with one another. Coherence describes properties of the correlation between a single wave, or between several waves or wave packets. When interfering, two waves can add together to create a wave of greater amplitude than either one (constructive interference) or subtract from one another to create a wave of lesser amplitude than either one (destructive interference).
A light source which emits a very narrow, unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic).
The phenomenon related to the existence of a correlation between the phases of the corresponding components of two waves or between the values of the phase of a given component of one wave at two instants in time or two points in space.
The molecular attraction which holds the body of an adhesive together. The internal strength of an adhesive.
Cohesion (cohesive) failure
Rupture of a bonded assembly in which the separation appears visually to be in the adhesive or the adherend.
The ability of the adhesive to stick within itself during the wet stage. The term cohesive strength also applies to the internal strength of dried adhesive.
The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral-wrapped shield, especially above audio frequencies.
Cable formed into the shape of a spring by winding cable around a mandrel, and heat set into the shape (also referred to as retractile cordset). This permits the extension of a coiled cord to a length from 3 to 5 times it's length at rest. A coiled cord will typically return , after being extended and released, to a length similar to it's original length at rest.
A laboratory test procedure whereby a sample of wire or cable is wound around a mandrel of a specified size at a specified temperature for a given number of turns at a given rate of speed and examined for defects.
Test conducted by rapping tubing around a mandrel or by bending it in a arc while at a low temperature
1)Permanent deformation of insulation due to mechanical forces, without the aid of heat-softening of the insulating material.__2)Deformation of the insulation due to mechanical force or pressure (not due to heat softening).
A hydraulic or pneumatic press designed to press face-glued or veneered panels without the addition of heat.
A bonding operation in which an assembly is subjected to pressure without the application of heat.
Any test to determine the performance of cables during or after subjection to a specified low temperature for a specified time.
This architecture is a backbone topology where wiring concentrators located at floor levels are attached in a star configuration to a central high performance switching concentrator.
A process in which a divergent or convergent beam of radiation is converted into a beam with the minimum divergence as possible, preferably parallel.
The event that occurs when data from two devices attached to a common bus are placed on the bus at the same time. In Ethernet this typically generates a re-transmission.
The particular color of a tape, when looking at the backing, regardless of the color of the adhesive.
8 to 10 cycles of 3.68 MHz subcarrier that is added to the back porch of the Horizontal Sync Pulse. The Color Burst is used to synchronize the color elements of a color video signal.
A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors, stripes or surface operating
The timing relationship between the Luminance and chroma portions of a composite color video signal.
The ability of a tape to retain its original color, particularly when exposed to light.
A macromolecule comprising a main chain from which long chains emanate at approximately regular intervals. (IUPAC)
Commercial Mobile-Radio Service
The regulatory classification that the Federal Communications Commission uses to govern all commercial wireless service providers, including personal communications services, cellular, and enhanced specialized mobile radio.
Common Axis Cabling
In multiple cable constructions, a twisting of all conductors about a common axis with two conductor groups then selected as pairs. This practice yields smaller diameter constructions than does a separate axis construction, but tends to yield greater sus
An organization that provides regulated telephone, telegraph, telex and data communications systems.
Noise caused by a difference in ground potential. By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference.
Common Mode Current
The component of the signal current that induces electric and magnetic fields that do not cancel each other. For example; in circuit with one outgoing signal conductor and one ground conductor, the common-mode current is the component of the total signal current that flows in the same direction on both conductors. This is the primary source of EMI in many electronic systems.
Common Mode Interference
Interference appearing between signal leads or the terminals of a measuring circuit and ground.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
The ratio of the common-mode interference voltage at the input of a circuit to the corresponding interference voltage at the output. This ratio expresses the capability of the device to reject the effect of a voltage that is applied simultaneously to both input terminals. A high ratio is desirable.
The electronic transfer of information between the points of origin and reception. Includes all manual and machine interfaces necessary to complete the transfer.
Communications Common Carrier
In the U.S., a government-regulated private company that furnishes the general public with telecommunications service facilities; for example, a telephone or telegraph company.
A complex of data communications equipment, data links and channels that connect one or more data processing systems.
The rules that govern the behavior and attributes of both hardware and software as they apply to data communications.
A device which acts as a gateway to communication lines outside normal building boundaries or to a different communicating device. The server may allow access to several lines by any number of users on a network. Sometimes called a modem pool.
Community antenna television (CATV)
Assumed to be cable television, CATV uses fiber and coaxial media to provide voice, video, or data services.
Stranded conductor rolled to deform the round wires to fill the normal interstices between the wires in a strand.
The ability of dissimilar materials to exist in mutual proximity or contact without changing their physical or electrical properties.
Competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC)
A company that provides its own network and switching in competition with the already-established ILEC. A newly formed exchange company in direct competition with the ILEC for the telecom transport market in a specific area. Also known as competitive access provider (CAP).
A basic electronic element usually packaged in a discrete form with two or more connecting leads or metallic pads. Components are intended to be connected together, usually by soldering to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit._
Composite (Clad) Wire
A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of different metals.
Composite second order (CSO)
An analog signal distortion that can result in a visual impairment in picture quality, e.g., a rolling or intermittent diagonal line across the TV screen.
Composite triple beat (CTB)
Combination of distortions caused by nonlinearities generated by amplifiers and other components in a cable TV network handling many RF signals.
The variation in elemental composition from molecule to molecule usually found in copolymers. (IUPAC)
Any technique for reducing a transmission bandwidth requirement by reduction of the data stream needed to convey the information. Compression standards are identified by MPEG.
A pipe type cable in which the pressure medium is separated from the insulation by a membrane or sheath.
Connector crimped by an externally applied force; the conductor is also crimped by such force inside the tube-like connector body. Compression connectors are in very intimate contact with the two ends of the conductors being spliced.
A method of molding thermosets. Compound (usually preheated) is placed in an open mold, mold is closed, and heat and pressure applied until material is cured. This process can also be used with synthetic rubber materials.
The adding of computer intelligence to the making, receiving and managing of telephone calls.
The function of routing information from a number of communications links into a smaller number of higher capacity links and providing the reverse flow from fewer to more links. A device which performs this function usually is called a concentrator. Unlike the multiplexer, the concentrator is a programmable device.
Programmable device which routes information from a number of communications links into a smaller number of higher capacity links and provides the reverse flow from fewer to more links.
A central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement.
Cable conductor composed of a central conductor surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid insulated wires or conductors.
A wire that consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of spiral laid wires.
Concentric Stranded Conductors
Manufactured to ASTM, ICEA, and CSA standards. The most common fixed installation type conductors are : 1) Round-no diameter reduction: 2) Compressed-approximately 3% diameter reduction; 3) Compact-approximately 10% diameter reduction.
1)A central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically wound strands in a fixed round geometric arrangement.__2)Stranding in which the individual filaments are spiraled in layers around a central core. As a general rule, each layer after the first has six more strands than the preceding layer and is applied in a direction contra-helical to that of the layer under it.
A concentric-lay conductor, or a multiple-conductor cable composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid insulated conductors.
In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the insulation. Expressed in percent.
A chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine with the separation (or release) of water or some other simple substance. If a polymer is formed, the process is called polycondensation.
One in which two or more molecules combine resulting in elimination of water or other simple molecules, with the process being repeated to form a long chain molecule.
Temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. which exist in the area surrounding the bond, normally room temperature, atmospheric pressure, daylight, etc.
A reaction in which monomer molecules with at least two functional groups combine and eliminate water (or some other simple molecule) to form a polymer
1)The reciprocal of resistance. It is the ratio of current passing through a material to the potential difference at its ends.__2)The ability of a conductor to carry an electrical charge. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. The reciprocal of resistance.
The potential EMI generated inside equipment and carried through the I/O lines, the power lines or control leads.
The EMI that couples from the outside of equipment to the inside of equipment over the I/O cables, power lines or signal leads.
A rubber-like material containing metal powder or small particles for conducting electricity to achieve a specified shielding effectiveness.
The capacity of a material to carry electrical current that is usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100%).
1)An electric current carrying material such as copper wire; the conductive element in an electrical wire or coaxial connector.__2)An insulated wire suitable for carrying electrical current.__3)A conductor is a slender rod or filament of drawn metal of circular cross section or group of such rods or filaments not insulated from one another, suitable for transmitting an electric current.
A type of metal used to make wire for conductors. The most commonly used material is ETP copper (usually referred to as copper). A special grade of copper is OFHC copper, which is oxygen-free, high conductivity copper. Alloys of copper are used for applications needing higher strength or longer flex life or greater reliability. These alloys are normally Cadmium bronze (also known as Cadmium copper). Less frequently used alloys are Cadmium chromium copper, phosphor bronze, and Silicone bronze.
An extrusion of black semi-conducting thermoses material over the conductor to provide a smooth interface with the insulation for even distribution of electrical stress.
A device on a terminal, splice, contact or tool used to prevent excessive extension of the conductor barrel.
Solid wires twisted together or groups of twisted solid wires which are then twisted together. The most common types of stranded conductors are 7 twisted wires (7 strand), or 16 twisted wires (16 strand), or 19 twisted wires (19 strand). Other strandings are 37 twisted wires 63 twisted wires, and 127 twisted wires. Concentric stranded conductors are twisted in progressive layers of 6 wires around 1 wire (7 strand), or 12 wires around 6 wires around 1 wire (19 strand) and 18 wires around 12 wires around 6 wires around 1 wire (37 strand). Bunch stranded conductors are twisted together at one time rather than in layers. Buch stranded conductors are typically either 16, 19, 26, 28, 37 or 40 twisted wires. The finished AWG (guage) of a conductor is determined by the number of strands (of wire) based on the AWG of the wire itself. For example, 7 strands of a 34 AWG wire will result in a 26 AWG conductor. A complete listing of the strand and AWG combinations can be found in our Stranded Conductors Chart.
A pipe made of metal, plastic, or clay used for the installation of communications or power cables between two or more locations.
Conduit (Electrical Raceway)
A rigid or flexible metallic or non-metallic raceway of circular cross section through which wire and cables can be pulled or housed.
The number, spacing and arrangement of contacts in a connector. (MIL-STD). Related chemical structure produced by the making and breaking of primary valence bonds.
Configurational Base Unit
A constitutional repeating unit in a regular macromolecule (or oligomer or block), the configuration of which is defined at least at one site of stereoisomerism in the main chain. (IUPAC)
Configurational Repeating Unit
The smallest set of successive configurational base units that prescribes configurational repetition at one or more sites of stereoisomerism in the main chain of a regular macromolecule (or oligomer or block). (IUPAC)
The whole or part of a chain comprising one or more species of configurational units in defined sequence. Note configurational sequences comprising two configurational units are termed diads, those comprising three configurational units triads, and so one. In order of increasing sequence lengths they are called tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, octads, nonads, decads, etc. (IUPAC)
The ability of tape to fit snugly or make essentially complete contact with the surface of an irregular object without creasing or folding.
A flame-retardant plastic block containing metal wiring terminal (quick clips) that establishes an electrically tight connection between the cable and the cross-connect wire; An interconnecting device used in telecommunications and LAN applications consisting of multiple points for wire attachment. Some common connecting blocks are the 66 block, 110 block, the BIX block and the Krone block.
1) A device providing mechanical cable terminations between two cable ends; 2) See Cross Connect.
The continuous electrical path between 2 or more points wherein current flows. The path is constructed with metal parts, such as copper wire, contacts, terminations, splices, and mating contacts of connectors.
A device used to physically and electrically connect two or more conductors. Also used to physically connect cable to equipment.
Includes housing and contact plus additional components such as hardware used to hold the assembly together and/or make the assembly a functional connector.
A device, whether a plug or a receptacle, used to terminate or connect the conductors of wires (individual or in cables) and which provides a means to continue the conductors to a mating connector or printed circuit board. (MIL-STD).
That part which holds the contacts in their proper arrangement and electrically insulates them from each other and from the shell.
Connector Return Loss
Amount of power reflected from the connector to connector interface, typically expressed in decibels.
Connector Set, Electrical
Two or more separate connectors, plug connector and receptacle connector, designed to be mated together. The set may include mixed connectors mated together, such as one connector plug and one dummy connector receptacle, or a connector receptacle and one electrical plug. (MIL-STD).
The outside case of a connector into which the dielectric material and contacts are assembled. (MIL-STD)
A process where customers provide the manufacturer with all the parts and materials. The manufacturer then builds the products and deliver completed assemblies or cables to the customer. Sometimes referred to as kitted._
A step during the optical fiber manufacturing process during which the bait rod is removed and the remaining silica is heated at high temperatures (sintering) to drive out impurities and water and leave only a pure glass rod.
A location for interconnection between horizontal cables extending from a telecommunications room and horizontal cables extending to telecommunications outlet/connectors.
An alloy used in making thermocouples wires. An alloy of copper, nickel manganese and iron.
The variation in constitution from molecule to molecule in polymers with molecules uniform with respect to elemental composition. (IUPAC)
Constitutional Repeating Unit
The smallest constitutional unit, the repetition of which constitutes a regular macromolecule (or oligomer molecule or block). (IUPAC)
The whole or part of a chain comprising one or more species of constitutional units in defined sequence. Note constitutional sequences comprising two constitutional units are termed diads, those comprising three constitutional units triads, and so one. In order of increasing sequence lengths they are called tetrads, pentads, hexads, heptads, octads, nonads, decads, etc. (IUPAC)
An atom or group of atoms in a macromolecule or oligomer molecule, comprising a part of the chain together with its pendant atoms or groups of atoms, if any. (IUPAC)
Design of wire rope including number of strands, number of wires per strand and arrangement of wires in each strand
The conductive element in a connector which makes actual contact for the purpose of transferring electrical energy. (MIL-STD) Generally, in a male connector the contact is a pin and in a female connector it is a socket.
Adhesive that is applied to both adherends and after a specified open assembly time will instantly develop a bond when a firm but not sustained pressure is applied.
Defines the overall radial play which contacts shall have within the insert cavity so as to permit self-alignment of mated contacts. Sometimes referred to as amount of contact float.
Contact Angle (Soldering)
The angle of a solder fillet that is enclosed between a plane that is tangent to the solder/basis-metal surface and a planethat is tangnet to the solder/air interface.
The area in contact between two conductors, two contacts or a conductor and a contact permitting the flow of electricity. (MIL-STD)
The number of insertion and withdrawal cycles that a connector must be capable of withstanding while remaining within the performance levels of the applicable specification.
Contact Engaging & Separating Force
1) The force needed to either engage or separate pins and socket contacts when they are in and out of connector inserts. Values are generally established for maximum and minimum forces. Performance acceptance levels vary by specification and/or customer requirements.__2) Force needed to either engage or separate mating contacts. (MIL-STD)
A contact having an engagement end that will accept entry of a pin contact. (MIL-STD) Also called Socket contact
The overall side-play and/or angular displacement of contacts within the insert cavity. (MIL-STD)
A contact design which is a combination pin and socket and which mates with other contacts of the same design. (MIL-STD) Both mating elements are precisely alike at their mating face.
Contact Inspection Hole
A hole in the cylindrical rear portion of contact used to check the depth to which a wire has been inserted.
The distance of travel made by a contact in touch with another during the insertion and removal of a connector.
A contact having an engagement end that enters the socket contact. (MIL-STD) A male type contact, usually designed to mate with a socket or female contact. It is normally connected to the “dead” side of a circuit. Also called Pin Contact
Metal plating applied to the base contact metal to provide the required contact resistance and/or wear resistance.
1) Electrical resistance of a pair of engaged contacts. Resistance may be measured in Ohms or millivolt drop at a specified current over the engaged contacts. (MIL-STD)__2) Measurement of electrical resistance of mated contacts when assembled in a connector under typical service use. Electrical resistance is determined by measuring from the rear of the electrical area of one contact to the rear of the electrical area of the mating contact (excluding both crimps) while carrying a specified test current.
A device either on the contact or in the insert to retain the contact in an insert or body. (MIL-STD)
The axial load in either direction which a contact can withstand without being dislodged from its normal position within an insert or body. (MIL-STD)
The distance of travel (electrical engagement) made by one contact with another during its engagement or separation or during mating or unmating of the connector halves. (MIL-STD)
The conducting members of a connecting device that are designed to provide a separable through connection in a cable-to-cable, cable-to-box or a box-to-box situation.
(1) A continuous path for the flow of current in an electrical circuit. (2) An uninterrupted path for he flow of electrical current in a circuit.
A test to determine whether electrical current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire in a cable or center conductor of a cable assembly.
Reeving of wire rope over sheaves and drums so that it bends in the same direction, as opposed to reverse bend
Continuous Current Rating
The designated RMS alternating or direct current which the connector can carry continuously under specified conditions.
Continuous Operating Temperature
Maximum temperature at which a component will maintain an acceptable lifetime performance, based on accelerated aging prediction
Continuous wave (CW)
Energy is emitted from a module continuously, rather than in short pulses. CW applications require the laser to be on at all times. Constant output from an optical source that is active but not modulated by a signal.
Cable spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable.
Controlled environment vault (CEV)
A reinforced vault designed to provide an environmentally stable underground area to house fiber optic transmission equipment and electronics for switching, monitoring, back-up power, remote terminals, etc.
Controlled Impedance Cable
Package of two or more insulated conductors where impedance measurements betweenrespective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length.
A conveying, or transference of heat or electricity by moving particles of matter. The transfer of heat by movement of hot air. Often used in conjunction with infrared radiation to reduce the effect of IR shadowing.
The distance between the lowest and highest lead when the connector is laying in its seating place.
A dielectric material, composed of polyisobutylene and polystyrene developed as a substitute of polystyrene. However, polyethylene is more commonly used instead of copolene.
The most widely used electrical conductor in wires and cables. Some of the common types of electrical coppers and copper alloys are:
Copper and Copper Alloys
The most widely used electrical conductor in wires and cables. Copper and its alloys are used extensively for contacts and connectors. Copper has the best conductivity of the common (non-precious) metals. Copper and copper alloys offer excellent corrosion resistance, thigh thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication, joining and forming.
Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. Synonymous with Copperweld.
Copper covered steel wire. Copper and steel welded together. The trade name of Flexo Wire Division (Copperweld Steel Corp.) for their copper-clad steel conductors.
A cable using stranded conductors for flexibility as in distribution cords or line cords. Line cords can also use tinsel conductors.
Tight buffered breakout cables used to build patch cords (jumpers). Internally, the fibers are normally one or two 900-micron coated fibers. The term “zipcord” describes a two-fiber cordage to allow two separate plugs to have their own strain relief.
A short length of copper wire or fiber optic cable with connectors on each end. Used to connect equipment to cabling, or to connect cabling segments (cross-connection).
(1) In cables, a term used to express a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied, such as additional components, shield, sheath, or armor; (2) In fiber optics, the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections.
A measure of the relationship between the geometric center of the core of an optical fiber and the geometric center of the cladding, or how centered the core is.
A ratio of the minimum to maximum diameters of the core within an optical fiber, or how round the core is.
Wire rope used to operate the coring tool for taking core samples during the drilling of a well
1)A discharge resulting from a partial electrical breakdown in voltage exceeding a certain breakdown value.__2)A discharge due to ionization of air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value.
The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of field-intensified ionization that does not result in the immediate complete breakdown of the insulation.
1)The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction.__2)The deterioration of a material by chemical reaction or galvanic action.
Bare copper, usually soft drawn, buried around the perimeter of a structure for grounding purposes. When grounding electrical transmission towers - usually running parallel to the overhead lines along the right-of-way. A grounding installation employed wh
A substance having functional groups that are capable of reacting with the surfaces of two different substances, thereby chemically bridging them.
In fiber optics, signal losses due to small differences in numerical aperature, core diameter, core concentricity and tolerances in splicing connectors when two fibers are aligned. Also known as Splicing Loss and Transfer Loss.
That portion of a plug which aids in the mating or unmating of a plug and receptacle and holds the plug to the receptacle. (MIL-STD) Also called Coupling Ring
A measure of how a device distributes light from its inputs to its outputs. Expressed as either a percentage or in dB.
A device on a plug connector which contains means to automatically secure the coupling to the receptacle and prevent any coupling rotation during shock and vibration. (MIL-STD)
The force required to rotate a coupling ring or jackscrew to fully engage a mating pair of connectors.
Cover Electrical Connector
An item which is specifically designed to cover the mating end of a connector for mechanical and/or environmental protection. (MIL-STD)
The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. The higher percentage of coverage, the greater the protection against external interference .
Textile braid or jacket of rubber plastics, or other materials applied over wire and cable to provide mechanical protection and identification.
The formation of fissures or voids in the adhesive film due to excessive shrinkage characteristics of the adhesive.
In an adhesive, the time-dependent deformation usually resulting from sustained stress. Final configuration of a terminal barrel formed by the compression of terminal barrel and wire.
The shortest distance on the surface of an insulator separating two electrically conductive surfaces. (MIL-STD)
The total strain, at any given time, produced by the applied stress during a creep test.
The path electricity must travel across the surface of a dielectric between two conductors. Lengthening the creepage path reduces the possibility of arc damage or tracking.
An insulating surface which provides physical separation as a form of insulation between two electrical conductors of different potential.
The act of compressing a connector barrel around a cable in order to make an electrical connection.
A contact whose back portion is a hollow cylinder to allow it to accept a wire. After a bared wire is inserted, a swedging tool is applied to crimp the contact metal firmly against the wire.
A measurement taken of the overal wire barrel height after the terminal has been crimped.
A sleeve of lightweight metal is deformed by compression to encapsulate material and provide strain relief at the rear of a fiber optic plug.
Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or automated crimping machines.
That part of the crimping die, usually the moving part, which indents or compresses the terminal barrels. Sometimes called an indentor.
A pressure method of mechanically securing a terminal, splice or contact to a conductor. (MIL-STD) Crimp vs Solder
Area of a crimping tool formed by mating the anvil (nest) and crimper (indentor), in which a contact or terminal is crimped.
Portion of the crimping tool that shapes the crimp. (MIL-STD) This term is used to identify the shaping tools that when moved toward each other, produce a certain desirable shape to the barrel of the terminal or contact that has been placed between them. Crimping dies are often referred to as die sets or as die inserts.
Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or crimp dies.
Mechanism used for crimping. (MIL-STD) The term commonly used to identify a handheld mechanical device or table press that is used to crimp a contact, ferrule, terminal or splice.
Smallest angle at which a meridional ray may be totally reflected within a fiber at the core-cladding interface.
Diameter of the smallest bend for a given wire rope which permits the wires and strands to adjust themselves by relative movement while remaining in their normal position
Spurious color patterns in a color picture resulting from incomplete separation of the luminance and chroma portions of the color video signal.
SYSTIMAX� SCS component where communication circuits are administered (that is, added or rearranged using jumper wire or patch cords). In 110 Connector Systems, Hook-Up Wire or patch cords are used to make circuit connections. In fiber optic connector systems, fiber optic patch cords are used. The cross connect is located in an equipment room or telecommunications closet. See also Jumper Wire and Patch Cord.
Cross Connect Field
Copper wire or fiber terminations grouped to provide cross-connect capability. The groups are identified by color-coded sections of back boards mounted on the wall in equipment rooms or telecommunications closets, or by designation strips or labels placed on the wiring block or unit. The color coding identifies the type of circuit that terminates at the field.
A defect that manifests itself as a dot pattern that moves through the picture because of chroma information leaking into the luminance signal.
Cross Sectional Area of a Conductor
The summation of all cross-sectional areas of the individual strands in the conductor, expressed in square inches or more commonly in circular mils.
Cross Sectioning and Analysis Service
Fiber Optic Center's unique cross-sectioning service to identify and isolate problems related to fiber optic terminations that would otherwise be invisible.
A magnetic or electrostatic coupling which causes the unwanted transfer of energy from one signal path (disturbing circuit) to another signal path (disturbed circuit).
A facility enabling the termination of cable elements and their interconnection, and/or cross-connection, primarily by means of a patch cord or jumper.
A connection scheme between cabling runs, subsystems and equipment using patch cords or jumpers that attach to connecting hardware on each end.
The concentration at which the sum of the volumes of the domains occupied by the solute molecules or particles in solution is approximately equal to the total volume of that solution. (IUPAC)
Cross-phase modulation (XPM)
A nonlinear optical effect where one wavelength of light affects the phase of a similar wavelength of light.
The area of the cut surface of an object cut at right angles to the length of the object.
A veneer oriented at right angles to a face veneer used to ensure dimensional stability in a plywood panel
To form chemical bonds between molecules to produce a three-dimensional network; a constitutional unit connecting two parts of a macromolecule that were earlier separate molecules. Note a network may be thought to consist of many "primary chains" that are interconnected by a number of crosslinks. In the vast majority of cases, the crosslink is a covalent bond but the term is also used to describe sites of weaker chemical interactions, portions of crystallites, and even physical entanglements. (IUPAC)
A term denoting intermolecular bonds between long chain thermoplastic polymers, effected by chemical or irradiation techniques.
The generation of chemical links between the molecular chains, usually achieved by chemical reactions or high energy irradiation of the material.
Crosslinking by Irradiation
A method of crosslinking polymers that makes a nonflowing material. This generally improves the properties of the polymer.
An electromagnetic coupling between two physically isolated circuits in a system. 1) A type of interference caused by signals from one circuit being coupled into adjacent circuits. 2) A magnetic or electrostatic coupling which causes the unwanted transfer of energy from one circuit (disturbing circuit) to another circuit (disturbed circuit).
A test that determines the ability of a fiber optic cable to mechanically and optically withstand the effects of a compressive force. Testing specifies the changes in optical transmittance or attenuation during compressive loading. Specified in the TIA/EIA 455-41 “Compressive Loading Resistance of Fiber Optic Cables” fiber optic test procedure.
Polymer with a regular order or pattern of molecular arrangement and a sharp melting point.
The most important commerical measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (freeboard). Capacity is measured in cubic metres or cubic feet (cu.ft.).
To change the physical properties of a material by chemical reaction, by the action of heat and catalysts, alone or in combination, with or without pressure. The process by which a compound attains its intended performance properties by means of evaporation, chemical reaction, heat, radiation, or combinations thereof.
An oven specifically manufactured to use thermal curing to harden the epoxy injected into a fiber-optic ferrules.
The temperature to which an adhesive or an assembly is subjected to cure the adhesive.
The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. An indication of the ability of the wire to be wrapped around posts in long runs.
The rate of transfer of electricity. The practical unit is the ampere, which represents the transfer of one coulomb per second.
Current Carring Capacity
1)The current a conductor of a given size is capable of carrying without exceeding its temperature limitation. 2)The maximum current an insulted conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations. (Same as Ampacity)
The depth a current of a given frequency will penetrate into the surface of a conductor carrying the current
A sensor which measures EMI and clamps onto a wire, wire pair, coaxial line or cable harness to help locate and quantify ground loops. Snap-on current probes measure the normal-mode current in a wire pair, coaxial line or wire bundle.
The maximum continuous electrical flow of current recommended for a given wire in a given situation. Expressed in amperes (AMPS).
The maximum current an insulated conductor or cable can continuously carry without exceeding its temperature rating. It is also called ampacity.
Current, Alternating (AC)
An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. The number of full cycles occurring in a given unit of time (one second) is called the frequency of the current.
Current, Direct (DC)
Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only; it may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction.
Building(s) with grounds and appurtenances (belongings) under the control of the customer.
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Customer owned equipment used to terminate or process information from the public network e.g. Multiplexed or PABX.
Cut Off Frequency
The frequency, above which other than the TEM mode may occur. The transmission characteristics of cables above their cutoff frequency may be unstable.
Cut Off Tab
The small tabs that remain on the front and back of a terminal after is has been applied.
Cut off wavelength
For a single mode fiber, the wavelength above which the fiber exhibits single mode operation.
Cut Through Resistance
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure, (usually a sharp edge or small radius) without separation.
A method of securing a wire to a wiring terminal. The insulated wire is placed in the terminal groove and pushed down with a special tool. As the wire is seated, the terminal cuts through the insulation to make an electrical connection, and the spring-loaded blade of the tool trims the wire flush with the terminal. Also called punch-down.
The frequency above which a coaxial device will support electrical modes other than the principal TEM (transverse electromagnetic) mode. This sets an upper limit to the coaxial line’s normal useful frequency range, distorting pulses and modulation envelopes.
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure, usually a sharp edge of prescribed radius, without separation.
A technique for measuring fiber attenuation by performing two transmission measurements. One is done at the output end of the full length of the fiber. The other is usually done within 1-3 meters of the input end and accessed by “cutting back” the test fiber and measuring the change in the pre- and post-cutback measurements.
That wavelength greater than which a particular waveguide mode ceases to be a bound mode. When transmitting lower than a single-mode fiber’s cutoff wavelength, the fiber transmits multimode. For G.652 single-mode fibers the cutoff wavelength is 1260 nm. For G.655 fibers, it can range from 1260 nm to 1450 nm.
The hole, usually round or rectangular, cut in a metal panel for mounting a connector. May include holes for mounting screws or bolts. (MIL-STD)
Group of adhesives which show "instant" cure properties and bond to a wide variety of substrates. Cure is by contact with alkaline materials. Weakly alkaline materials such as water, cause the cure to start. Commonly referred to as "super glue."
One complete sequence of values of an alternating quantity, including a rise to maximum in one direction and return to zero; a rise to maximum in the opposite direction and return to zero. The number of cycles occurring in one second in called the frequency.
The number of repetitive flex motions that a wire or cable can withstand prior to breakdown.
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
A coded sequence of information allowing error checking and correction.
A description for the 9, 15 and 25 pin connectors widely used for data communications and microcomputer peripherals. It looks very loosely like a "D" when viewed vertically.
A 10-MHz personal-communications-services carrier serving a basic trading area in the 1865-to-1870-MHz band paired with the 1945-to-1950-MHz band.
Delta/Data Channel. A sort of status line in the ISDN arena. A 16 Kbps line carrying control signals and call data in the BRI interface. A 64 Kbps line in the PRI interface.
D4 connectors are made from a 2.5mm diameter ceramic (zirconia) ferrule for durability and one of the older generation connectors which is keyed, and spring loaded and has a 2mm diameter ferrule.
A mathematical technique that encodes data so that it uses less space (bandwidth) during transmission or storage.
A mathematical technique that encodes data so that it is more secure during transmission or storage. The data must be decrypted for use.
Data Grade Circuit
A telephone line capable of carrying high-speed data. The line is specially conditioned to accommodate this.
1) The physical means of connection one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving data. 2) Synonymous with communication link.
Data Link Layer
Layer 2 of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model; it defines protocols governing data packetizing and transmission into and out of each node.
Data Service Unit
DSU. A device for transmitting data on digital transmission facilities. Sometimes incorporated with a CSU.
Data terminal equipment (DTE)
Used with RS-232 data equipment, DTE is a specific pinout configuration on standard RS-232 DB9 or DB25 connectors. Usually a DTE device is a terminal with a male connector; its complementary device (DCE) normally has a female connector.
The conveying of data from one place for reception elsewhere by signals transmitted over a data circuit.
(1) Abbreviation for decibel; (2) The loss of a signal in a conductor expressed in decibels, denoting the ratio of the power input to output; (3) One tenth of a bel.
A logarithmic unit describing the ratio of loss of power per kilometer distance. These values are always referenced to a specific wavelength, e.g., 0.35 dB/km at 1310 nm, and are used by fiber and cable manufacturers to define the optical fiber’s attenuation.
Decibels relative to one milliwatt. A positive number indicates the power is above one milliwatt; a negative number indicates the power is below. This unit has become common in fiber optic communication systems because the power of light sources used with optical fibers is on the order of one milliwatt.
Direct current. Current which moves in a single direction in a steady flow. Normal household electricity is alternating current (AC) which repeatedly reverses its direction. However, many electronics devices require DC, and therefore must convert the current into DC before using it.
Provides an effective check on cable and connector integrity. Both cabling and connectors have inherent DC resistance. Loop resistance is the combined resistance of each individual wire in a two-wire pair. It is tested for each pair by placing a known DC voltage on one wire in the pair, shorting the Remote Handset and reading the voltage loss at the Display Handset. DC loop resistance testing is essential to isolating poor connector punch downs, cable damage and shorts.
1) Digital Cordless Standard 1800. 2) Digital Communications Service 1800 MHz is an upbanded variant of the Global System for Mobile Communications.
Mating surfaces of a connector designed so that the contacts are recessed below the surface of the connector insulator body to prevent accidental short-circuiting of the contacts.
The largest weight of cargo, bunkers and stores a ship is able to carry. Expressed in metric tons (1000 kg) or long tons (1016 kg). The deadweight tonnage is the most important commerical measurement. Normally the maximum payload for a ship is three to ten percent lower than the deadweight, due to the weight of bunkers and stores, etc.
An area where an OTDR cannot make measurements. It is limited by the laser’s pulse width, the reflection of the front panel connector, and detector circuitry. The shorter the pulse width, the shorter the deadzone.
A package with internal fiber that is used to test fiber spans with an OTDR, allowing attenuation and connector reflectance to be measured within the OTDR’s dead zone. The internal fiber must be at least 20 times the OTDR’s minimum pulse width, and they are most commonly sold in lengths of 500 or 1,000 meters.
Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to decreasing the velocity of the load
1)A unit of measurement to express logarithmic differences of power level. It is used to express power gain in amplifiers or power loss in passive circuits or components. Expressed as dB. 2)A unit to express differences of power level. A term that expresses two power levels used to indicate gains or losses in a system.
1) A device used to separate the individual component portions of a composite signal. 2) A device the decodes scrambled television broadcast signals.
degree of polymerization
the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or oligomer molecule. (IUPAC)
The separation of layers in a laminate because of failure of the adhesive, either in the adhesive itself or at the interface between the adhesive and the adherend.
1) A device used to delay a signal for a specified length of time. 2) A cable made to provide very low velocity of propagation with long electrical delay for transmitted signals.
The difference in propagation delay between any two pairs within the same cable sheath. Also known as Propagation Delay/Delay Skew. Delay Skew is a measurement of the signaling delay difference from the fastest pair to the slowest. Delay Skew is calculated from Propagation Delay measurements.
The point of interconnection between telephone company terminal equipment and a building’s wiring where the operational control or ownership changes.
A device that separates the two or more signals that have been combined into a multiplexed signal. An optical demultiplexer separates signals at different wavelengths. An electronic demultiplexer separates signals that have been electronically multiplexed by time (TDM) or frequency (FDM).
Unit of measure for the linear mass density of fibers. It is defined as the mass in grams per 9000 meters.
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)
A method of increasing the amount of data that can be transmitted over an optical fiber.
Ratio of weight (mass) to volume of a material – ie grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per gallon.
Depolarization of scatter light
The phenomenon, due primarily to the anisotropy of the polarizability of the scattering medium, resulting from the fact that the electric vectors of the incident and scattered beams are not coplanar and that, therefore, light scattered from a vertically (horizontally) polarized incident beam contains a horizontal (vertical) component. (IUPAC)
Separation of a complex molecule into simple molecules; also softening of a sealant by the same action.
Depressed-clad optical fiber
The inner cladding, next to the core, has a lower index of refraction than the outer cladding region. Depressed refers to the IR mismatch between the two claddings, resulting in a small MFD that reportedly fusion splices more readily but tends to be more sensitive to the bending losses encountered in most enclosures.
Depth of Crimp
Thickness of the crimped portion of a connector measured between two opposite points on the crimped surface. The distance the indentor penetrates into the barrel. (MIL-STD)
A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established.
In a wire, the ratio of the minimum break strength to the total working load. Typical ratio is 5:1, but standards vary based upon industry, environment, and application
A device that picks up light from fiber and converts the information into an electrical signal. A device such a photodiode or photodetector that converts optical energy into electrical energy. They can be made from silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, indium gallium arsenide or from other semiconductors, depending on the wavelengths to detect. The positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) and the avalanche photodiode (APD) types are used in fiber optics. PIN types can be used for analog or digital systems, while APDs with their internal amplification can only be used in digital systems.
A device in which an optical detector is packaged with electronic amplification circuitry.
The cable, harness, or other assembly that is being tested by the cable tester.
Device, As Related to a Work Station
An item such as a telephone, personal computer, or graphic or video terminal.
Device, As Related to Protection
A protector, a protector mount, a protector unit or a protectomodule.
A situation where a lead was at one point in the soldering process wetted by the solder, but due to extended time or temperature, the presence of intermetallics, volatiles or other causes, has become withdrawn from the wetted surface.
Distance measured across the center of a circle circumscribing the wires of a strand or the strands of a wire rope
Diamond Lapping Film
Diamond lapping films cut and polish the hard ceramic ferrules and the softer fibers close to the same rate, easily controlling fiber undercut or protrusion. Diamond also helps assure the ferrule geometries meet the Telcordia GR 326 version 3 specifications, and leave the ferrule in a condition ready for the final polish film. Diamond is always recommended for the intermediate steps of machine polishing of single mode or multimode ceramic connectors, and for single mode hand polishing of ceramic connectors. When stopping at a diamond of 1um or less, a good surface finish results with great geometries, but with a return loss of -35 dB at best. If back reflection of -55 dB or better is required, see our Final Polish Films.
The gap between indenter dies at full handle closure. Usually defined by Go/No-Go dimensions.
A nonconducting or insulating material that resists passage of electric current. 1) A material having electrical insulating properties. (MIL-STD) 2) Any insulating material between two conductors which permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it. 3) A non-conducting material or a material having the property that the energy required to establish an electric field is recoverable, in whole or in part, as electric energy. A vacuum is a dielectric.
Dielectric Breakdown (DWV)
The voltage required to cause an electrical failure or breakthrough of the insulation. The insulation barrier is insufficient and only a small air gap keeps metal conductors from shorting. When high voltage is applied, the tester detects the weak insulation through an electrical arc (electricity flowing through the insulation).
Also called permittivity. That property of a dielectric which determines the amount of electrostatic energy that can be stored by the material when a given voltage is applied to it. Actually, the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor using the dielectric to the capacitance of an identical capacitor using a vacuum as a dielectric.
Dielectric Constant (K)
The ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with dielectric between the electrodes to the capacitance when air is between the electrodes. Also called Permittivity and Specific Inductive Capacity (SIC).
Dielectric Constant (Permittivity)
1)The ratio of the capacitance using the material in question as the dielectric, to the capacitance resulting when the material is replaced by air. 2)That property of a dielectric which determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for a unit potential gradient. The ratio of the capacitance using the material in question as the dielectric, to the capacitance resulting when the material is replaced by air. The dielectric constant is the most important design parameter for coaxial cables and determines dimensions, losses and propagation characteristics.
The use of a high frequency electric field through a joint to cure a synthetic thermosetting adhesive; a curing process for wood and other nonconductive joint materials.
The heating of an insulating material when placed in a radio-frequency field, caused by internal losses during the rapid polarization reversal of molecules in the material.
Power dissipated in an insulating medium as the result of the friction caused by molecular motion when an AC Electric field is applied. In a coaxial cable, the losses caused by the transformation of electromagnetic energy into heat within the dielectric material.
Dielectric Loss Factor (Dielectric Loss Index)
A measure of the loss characteristics of a dielectric material.
1)The voltage which an insulation can withstand before breakdown occurs. Usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil). 2)The maximum voltage that a dielectric material can withstand, under specified conditions. without rupturing. Usually expressed as a voltage gradient such as volts per mil.
A test in which a voltage higher than the rated voltage is applied for a specified time to determine the adequacy of the insulation under normal conditions. Sometimes called a "Hi-Pot" test (high potential).
Dielectric Withstanding Voltage
The maximum potential gradient that a dielectric material can withstand without failure.
Differential group delay (DGD)
A delay caused by different arrival times of optical signals, which results in modal dispersion. In multimode fibers, DGD is the delay difference of the various modes. In single-mode fibers, DGD is the delay caused by chromatic, waveguide, and polarization mode dispersion.
Phenomenon that results when light passes by an opaque edge or through an opening, generating weaker secondary wavefronts. These secondary wavefronts interfere with the primary wavefronts as well as with each other to form various patterns.
An array of fine, parallel, equally-spaced reflecting or transmitting lines that mutually enhance the effects of diffraction to concentrate the diffracted light in a few directions determined by the spacing of the lines and by the wavelength of the light.
(1) Pertaining to the utilization of discreet integral numbers in a given base to represent all the quantities that occur in a problem or a calculation. It is possible to express in digital form all information stores, transferred or processed by a dual-state condition; e.g., on-off, open-closed and true-false. (2) Compare with analog.
Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System (DAMPS)
Digitally-enhanced AMPS based on the ID-54 standard. Also referred to as TDMA.
Digital Cordless Telephone US (DCTU)
A version of Digital European Cordless Telecommunications proposed for the US personal-communications-services market.
Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DECT)
DECT is a digital cordless telecommunications system initially intended for wireless-public-branch-exchange applications, but which may also be used in the consumer market. DECT supports voice and data communications
Digital signal (DS)
A hierarchy of digital signal speeds used to classify capacities of digital lines and trunks. The fundamental speed level is DS-0 (64 kb/s). A signal that represents information by a series of fixed, encoded, rectangular pulses, usually consisting of two possible voltage levels. Each voltage level indicates one of tow possible values or logic states, such as on or off, open or closed, true or false. See also Analogue Signal.
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
A generic name for a family of digital lines provided by local telephone companies to their subscribers.
A technique in which all information is converted into binary digits for transmission (string of discrete "on-off" or "high-low" pulses).
Video signals represented by discrete numerical values rather than by continuously varying signal levels as in analog video. Because of this, it is simpler to maintain the fidelity of the video information as it travels through a transmission medium.
A solution in which the sum of the volumes of the domains occupied by the solute molecules or particles is substantially less than the total volume of the solution. (IUPAC)
DIN connector is an electrical connector that was originally standardized in the early 1970s by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), the German national standards organization. … Some DIN connector standards are: DIN 41524, for circular connectors often used for audio signals.
Coaxial connector interface with screw type coupling mechanism. Larger than N interface and suitable for medium to high power applications. Frequency range is DC - 7.5 GHz.
Diode adapter receptacle
Designed to house LED or PIN/APD diodes in a receptacle that allows the mating plug to position the fiber for an optimum coupling efficiency.
An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium.
Dip Solder Terminal
The terminals on a connector which are inserted into holes in a PC board and then soldered into position.
A component used to provide two functions, such as multiplexing or filtering optical signals. For example, a diplexer used at an FTTx optical network terminal filters the downstream 1490-nm wavelength and multiplexes the upstream 1310-nm wavelength to or from a single fiber.
Antenna with the gain, pattern and impedance defined at and near resonance of one-half wavelength. This antenna is split at its electrical center for connection to a transmission line. The radiation pattern is maximum at right angles to the axis of the antenna.
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
Direct Current (DC)
An electric current that flows in only one direction, substantially constant in value.
Direction of Lay
The lateral direction in which the strands of a conductor run over the top of the cable conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor or cable. Also applies to twisted cable.
An antenna which transmits or receives in certain directions more effectively than others.
A quantification of how much light is passing in any direction, measured in dB. If a 0 dBm signal passes through a coupler with 50 dB directionality, only –50 dB (0.01 ?m) will pass in the wrong direction.
1) A broken connection or the loss of a specific connection characteristic. 2) The temporary interruption or variation in current or voltage.
A sudden, large increase in current through an insulation medium due to the complete failure of the medium under the electrostatic stress.
In fiber optics, the variation of the refractive index of a material with wavelength, causing light of different wavelengths to travel at different velocities in the material.
Dispersion compensation module (DCM)
Dispersion compensation modules use a chirped fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and a optical circulator, which act as an individual wavelength or channel filter. Faster wavelengths are reflected further in the filter than slower wavelengths, enabling the slower wavelengths to catch up to the faster ones. The amount of delay is determined by the physical characteristics of the FBG. DCMs typically have insertion losses around 5 dB, consisting only of circulator and reflection losses. Tunable versions are also available.
Dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF)
A type of specialized fiber designed to offset or compensate for chromatic dispersion in single-mode fibers.
Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF)
Specified by ITU-T G.653, this fiber provides low attenuation and dispersion at 1550 nm. It could not be used with DWDM as it caused four wave mixing, and has been obsoleted and replaced by G.655 nonzero dispersion-shifted (NZDS) fiber.
A sudden, large increase in current through an insulation medium due to the complete failure of the medium under the electrostatic stress.
The tangent of the loss angle of the insulating material. (Also referred to as loss tangent, tand and approximate power factor.)
An unwanted change or addition to a signal or waveform when it is amplified. This definition excludes noise which is an extraneous signal superimposed on the desired signal.
Distributed feedback (DFB) laser
A laser that uses an internal grating to reduce the line width of the laser, and may be used for analog applications, e.g., AM/FM/DWDM.
A system or network whereby the processing is done at each individual workstation and not at a central device. A LAN is an example of distributed processing.
In telecommunications and CATV systems, the transmission cable between the distribution amplifier and the drop wire . A tight-buffered non breakout style cable mostly used for indoor installations. Jackets can be plenum, riser, or low smoke zero halogen to meet building codes. Internally, the fibers have a 900-micron coating. In the outside plant, the term “distribution cable” is used by service providers to describe the cable between the feeder (backbone) and drop cables.
A structure with terminations for connecting the permanent cabling of a facility in such a manner that interconnection or cross-connections may be readily made.
The term used for the functions of a collection of components (for example, patch panels, patch cords) used to connect cables.
A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source such as a transformer.
A scraper mechanism that regulates the dimensional thickness of adhesive on the spreader rolls or on the surface being coated. (Synonyms: doctor knife; doctor bar.)
A revolving roller mechanism resulting in a wiping action for regulating the adhesive supplied to the spreader roll.
An area including all peripherals and nodes under control of a single computer or server in a network.
A material, usually germanium or boron oxide, added to silica to change its index of refraction.
Controlled addition of small quantities of an impurity to a pure substance in order to change its characteristics, e.g., increase the refractive index of the fiber core.
Process of tool imprinting a 22-10 AWG PIDG terminal. Sot coding indicates whether the proper tool has been used.
Two covalent bonds (two shared pairs of electrons between two atoms) represented by "=" (Examples: C=C, C=O)
The process of tow or more mechanical crimping operations on the same location in a single terminal.
Double spread adhesive
An application of adhesive to both adherends or as two layers on one adherend.
Ladder chain a chain that comprises constitutional units always joined to each other through four atoms, two on each constitutional unit. (IUPAC)
Ladder copolymer a copolymer, the macromolecules of which are double-strand chains. (IUPAC)
Ladder polymer a polymer, the macromolecules of which are double-strand chains. (IUPAC)
LAN Cable Testers perform this function using a Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) that samples and analyzes the impedance of a link. Relative Impedance is measured as a function of length and each cable can be viewed in graphical format along its length to ascertain where the anomalies are located, whereas Characteristic Impedance is usually measured in a laboratory with complex test equipment such as an expensive network analyzer. The TDR measures relative impedance in the field to find crimps, kinks and/or stretched cable that would show up as a blips, peaks or valleys on the otherwise flat line graph of a good link. (also see FAULT FIND)
In a cable, an insulated wire laid over the component or components, usually under aluminized Mylar and used for a ground connection.
A step during the optical fiber manufacturing process in which a consolidated preform is loaded into a high temperature furnace and “drawn down” to the diameter of an optical fiber’s cladding, then cooled.
In the manufacturing of wire, pulling the metal through a die or series of dies for reduction of diameter to a specified size.
An amplifier in an integrated circuit that increases signal current to the LED for greater transmission distance.
A ceiling that creates an area or space between the ceiling material and the structure above the material. Synonym: False Ceiling, Suspended Ceiling.
A process where customers buy the parts and materials and they are shipped to the manufacturer. The manufacturer then builds the products and deliver completed assemblies or cables to the customer.
A telephone cable, usually consisting of one insulated telephone pair, which is used to connect a subscribers premises to open wire lines on poles.
A cylindrical flanged barrel of uniform or tapering diameter on which rope is wound for operation or storage. It may be smooth or grooved
To change the physical state of an adhesive or a substrate by the loss of solvent constituents by evaporation or absorption, or both.
It is when fiber is inserted into a plug’s ferrule or termini to verify the strip length and fit prior to insertion of the bonding adhesive. This helps the technician to recognize the “feel” of the fiber insertion process.
The strength of an adhesive joint determined immediately after drying under specified conditions or after a period of conditioning in a standard laboratory atmosphere.
A component of a sealant that accelerates the oxidation of oils or unsaturated polymers.
The temperature to which an adhesive or an assembly is subjected to dry the adhesive.
1) The period of time during which an adhesive or an assembly is allowed to dry, with or without the application of heat or pressure, or both; 2) The interval of time between the point of liquid adhesive application to the adherend substrate and the time at which adhesive particle coalescence occurs.
Dual Coaxial Cable
Two individually insulated conductors laid parallel or twisted and placed within an overall shield and sheath.
Dual Self-Normal Jack
A jack that provides a connection between the two rear connectors, except when interrupted by the insertion of a video patch plug in either of the two front panel receptacles.
A type of fiber optic cable that has two single-fiber cables enclosed in a jacket of extruded plastic.
(1) A single enclosed raceway for wires or cables. Also Conduit, Raceway; (2) a single enclosed raceway for wires or cables usually used in soil or concrete, (3) an enclosure in which air is moved. Generally part of the HVAC system of a building.
The main feeder channels in which communication cable is routed between buildings in a campus environment. See also Campus Backbone Cable.
Dummy Connector Assembly electrical
Two or more electrical connectors having common mounting or mounted on each other, each one capable of being independently replaced. Excludes items which are furnished as mated pairs or sets. (MIL-STD)
Dummy Connector Plug
A connector device designed to mate with a receptacle connector to perform protective, environmental and/or electrical shorting functions.
Dummy Connector Receptacle
A connector receptacle which does not have provisions for attaching conductors. It is generally used for storage of a cable assembly connector plugs. (MIL-STD)
A dissipative device used at the end of a transmission line or waveguide to convert transmitted energy into heat, so essentially no energy is radiated outward or reflected back to its source.
Referring to a type of data transmission, either half or full. Half duplex permits only one-way communication. Full duplex allows simultaneous two-way transmission.
(1) A cable composed of two insulated single conductor cables twisted together. (2) A cable composed of two fibers typically 62.5/125 mm Multi-Mode, placed in parallel under a thermoplastic sheath.
Typically used in the thermocouple industry to denote two parallel conductors of dissimilar metals insulated in parallel without twist and jacketed. Commonly applied to thermocouple grades and extension wires
1) Data transmission over a circuit capable of transmitting in both directions at the same time. 2) Synonymous with full duplex transmission.
As related to adhesive joints, the endurance of joint strength relative to the required service conditions.
A protective cover that fits tightly over the connector ferrule, plug, or sleeve. Usually made of plastic, it is used to keep the connector endface clean.
An item which is specifically designed to cover the mating end of a connector for mechanical and/or environmental protection. (MIL-STD)
The period of time after a panel has been cured in radio frequency, but before pressure is released to allow additional cure and equalizing.
For an optical instrument, defined (in dB) as the ratio of the smallest signal that can be observed at a specified wavelength separation in the presence of a strong nearly-saturating signal.
Defined by ITU-T G.692 as “extended” for wavelengths between 1360 and 1460 nm. This band includes the high OH peak in single-mode fibers. G.652D fiber is designed for transmission within the extended band. In FTTx systems, the term can be confused with the enhancement band, which the ITU-T G.983 and G.984 PON FTTx standards define as the wavelengths between 1550 and 1560 nm for RF overlay transmission of video signals.
A 10-MHz personal-communications-services carrier serving a basic trading area in the 1885-to-1890-MHz frequency range paired with 1965-to-1970-MHz
E2000 connector looks like a miniature SC connector. The connector is easy to install, with a push-pull latching mechanism which clicks when fully inserted. It features a spring-loaded shutter which fully protects the ferrule from dust and scratches.
The electronic ground equipment used with a parabolic-shaped antenna or "dish" to process RF signals to and from a satellite.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. An 8-bit code developed by IBM for data transfer between their computers.
A measure of the center of a conductor's location with respect to the circular cross-section of the insulation surrounding it, expressed as a percentage of center displacement of one circle within the other.
Edge-emitting diode (ELED)
A diode that emits lights from the edge of the semiconductor chip, producing higher power and narrower spectral width.
Efficiency (wire rope)
Percentage ratio of measured breaking strength of a wire rope to the aggregate strength of all individual wires tested separately
The ability of a crosslinked polymer to be deformed to some predetermined shape, hold that shape for a period, and then return to its original shape upon application of heat.
Type of polymer. A material which at room temperature stretches under low stress to at least twice its length and snaps back to original length upon release of stress.
That length of a cable assembly expressed as degrees of a cycle or fraction of a wave length for the signal transmitted. In the case of a cable assembly, the electrical length equals the physical length times the square root of the dielectric constant.
Electrical Resistance Test
A measurement of the resistance from circuit to circuit through the interfacial connection, designed to insure a satisfactory connection.
A conductor through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic conductor. The device in a fusion splicer that discharges the electric energy, fusing two or more fibers together.
Conductors, usually strips or plates used to carry the radio frequency power to the surfaces of the material to be heated.
Electrolytic corrosion factor
A measure of the tape's corrosive effect on a copper conductor. This is particularly important in the selection of tapes for use as electrical insulation.
Electrolytic Tough Pitch
A term describing the method of raw copper preparation to ensure a good physical and electrical grade copper finished product containing less than 1/10 of 1% impurities. (ASTM B5.)
Pertaining to the combined electric and magnetic fields associated with movements of electrons through conductors. Describes a devices ability to function properly in athe customer's environment without causig electomagnetic interference to other equipment, or itself being susceptible to external interference.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The capability of equipment or systems to be used in their intended environment within designed efficiency levels without causing or receiving degradation due to unintentional EMI.
The transfer of energy by means of a varying magnetic field. Inductive Coupling.
Electric and magnetic fields (commonly referred to as emissions) generated by equipment or system.
The production of a voltage in a coil due to a change in the number of magnetic lines of force (flux linkages) passing through the coil.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
A natural or man-made electrical or electromagnetic event conducted or radiated and resulting in unintentional and undesirable responses. Referred to as EMI
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)
A burst of electromagnetic radiation that results from an explosion (usually from the detonation of a nuclear weapon) and/or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field.
Electromotive Force (E.M.F)
Pressure or voltage. The force which causes current to flow in a circuit.
Electron Volt (EV)
A measure of the energy gained by an electron falling through an electric field produced by one volt.
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
Former body for test and measurement methods and procedure standards. Ceased operations in 2011.
Electronic Wire and Cable
A length of conductive or semiconductive material used in an electronic application.
A method of electrically depositing metals of very precise compositions and thickness onto a base metal.
Pertaining to static electricity or electricity at rest. A constant intensity electric charge
The transfer of energy by means of a varying electrostatic field. Capacitive coupling.
A copper or laminated aluminum/mylar tape wrap around a signal or instrumentation circuit (pair, triad, etc.) to protect from the electric field radiated by a voltage source. The grounded shield intercepts static interference and carries it off to ground.
Elongation at Break
The tensile strain in a test piece stretched to breaking point, the conditions being such that the stress is substantially uniform over the cross - section.
A marker identification by means of thermal indentation leaving raised lettering on the sheath material of cable.
Emergency management center (EMC)
A secondary traffic management center for emergency situations when the main traffic management center is unavailable or where additional monitoring or control is required.
Load which occurs when larger than normal currents are carried through a cable or wire over a certain period of time.
Emergency restoration kit (ERK)
A kit consisting of a length of optical cable, two closures, splice products, tools, and fixtures to assist in temporary or permanent restoration of cable repairs.
Electromagnetic Interference. Any electrical or electromagnetic interference that causes undesirable response, degradation, or failure in electronic equipment. Optical fibers neither emit nor receive EMI.
A circuit or device containing series-inductive and parallel-capacitive components that provide a low impedance path for high-frequency noise around a protected circuit.
The reduction in strength of electromagnetic fields and noise that can interfere with and alter a valid transmitted signal traveling in/on a metallic wire. This is typically accomplished by shielding; it can also include use of ferrites or toroids and/or capacitive couplers.
A dispersion of fine particles in water. A heterogeneous system in which an immiscible liquid is distributed in fine drops in another liquid.
A conductor with a baked-on enamel film insulation. In addition to magnet wire, enameled insulation is used on thermocouple type wires and other wires.
An adhesive in which the particles or droplets of one of the relative components are enclosed in a protective film (microcapsules) to prevent cure until the film is destroyed by suitable means.
Encircled flux (EF)
Defined by IEC 14763, TIA 455-203, and IEEE 802.3ae, EF is the most accurate test for determining optical attenuation for multimode fibers. Most often used in factory environments due to its complexity and equipment costs.
The conversion of plain text into an unintelligible form from which the original meaning can be recovered.
An accessory similar to a cable clamp that attaches to the back of a plug or receptacle. It serves as an adaptor for the rear of connectors.
End Cap Splice
An insulated splice in which two or more wires overlap and enter the splice from the same end of the barrel.
The quality of the end surface of a fiber prepared for splicing or terminated in a connector.
End separation loss
The optical power loss caused by distance between the end of a fiber and a source, detector, or another fiber.
An accessory similar to a cable clamp or strain relief which attaches to the back of a connector. It serves as an adapter for the rear of a connector.
The surface area of the fiber optic ferrule where the optical fiber is centered and polished.
The procedure by which aircraft cable is tested for longevity in applications requiring cycles over a pulley or other device. This test differs from a pull test by simulating real world applications and environments
Loss of energy from a system due to the conversion of work energy into an undesirable form, usually heat. Dissipation of electrical energy occurs when current flows through a resistance.
Engaging and Separating Force
The amount of force needed to engage and/or separate contact elements in mating connectors. See "Contact Pressure."
Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR)
The next generation of SMR, ESMR takes advantage of digital technology combined with cellular system architecture to provide greater capacity than existing SMR systems.
A communication system that adds wireless capability to an in-building or campus communications network.
Enterprise System Connection (ESCON)
A proprietary IBM data communications system consisting of duplex fiber transmission of up to 1.2 Gb/s.
The entrance to a building for communications and power. It provides the transition between the outside plant and the premises. The entrance facility can connect to telecom, utility, or communication rooms or closets.
Entrance Facility, Telecommunications
An entrance to a building for both public and private network service cables (including antennae) including the entrance point at the building wall and continuing to the entrance room or space.
Entrance Point, Telecommunications
The point of emergence of telecommunications conductors through an exterior wall, a concrete floor slab, or from a rigid metal conduit or intermediate metal conduit.
Entrance Room or Space, Telecommunications
A space in which the joining of inter- or intra-building telecommunications backbone facilities takes place. An entrance room may also serve as an equipment room.
A connector provided with gaskets, seals, potting, or other devices to keep out moisture, dirt, air, or dust which might lower its performance.
Plastic materials that become hard, infusible solids upon the addition of a hardening agent. Epoxy resins have excellent adhesive action, high chemical, solvent, and thermal resistance, and low shrinkage on curing.
Equal Level Far End Crosstalk (ELFEXT)
Is the same as FEXT, except that the coupled signal at the remote end is relative to the attenuated signal at the remote end on the pair the signal was applied to at the local end.
EQUAL LEVEL FAR-END CROSSTALK (ELFEXT)
A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end relative to the received signal level measured on that same pair.
More than one layer of helically laid wires with the direction of lay reversed for successive layers, but with the length of lay the same for each layer.
Equilibrium modal distribution (EMD)
Steady-state modal distribution in multimode fiber, achieved some distance from the source, where the relative power in the modes becomes stable with increasing distance.
Equilibrium moisture content
The moisture content eventually attained in wood exposed to a given level of relative humidity and temperature.
Equipment Cable Cord
A cable or cable assembly used to connect telecommunications equipment to horizontal or backbone cabling.
The room in which voice and data common equipment (for example, a Definity switch) is housed, protected, and maintained, and where circuit administration is done using the trunk and distribution cross connects.
Equipment Room, Telecommunications
A centralized space for telecommunications equipment that serves the occupants of the building. An equipment room is considered distinct from a telecommunications closet because of the nature of complexity or the equipment.
The part of a premises distribution system that includes the cable and distribution components in an equipment room and that interconnects system-common equipment, other associated equipment, and cross connects.
Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)
An optical amplifier that uses active erbium-doped fiber and a pump source (laser) to boost or amplify the optical signal. Used in DWDM, CATV HFC, RF overlay and RFoG systems. Amplifies mostly in the C-band (1530 to 1565 nm).
ESCON (Enterprise Systems Connection) is a data connection created by IBM, and is commonly used to connect their mainframe computers to peripheral devices such as disk storage and tape drives. ESCON is an optical fiber, half-duplex, serial interface. … ESCON was introduced by IBM in the early 1990s.
A process, using either chemicals or plasma which roughens the surface of a wire to assist in bonding to or making the wire.
A process applied to fluoro plastic wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond the fluoro plastic.
A data communications protocol for premises and local access networks (IEEE 802.3). Ethernet features variable length packets that allow data to be sent with less overhead.
Ethernet PON (EPON)
Based on IEEE 802.3ah protocol for Ethernet, EPON is a network data transport using a variable length packet structure up to 1,518 bytes at data rates up to 1,000 Mb/s over single-mode fiber. The EPON format uses up to 1:32 optical splitters and can use either one fiber bi-directionally (BX) or two fibers (LX) in low medium or high power configurations.
Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)
An ozone resistant rubber consisting primarily of ethylene propylene copolymer (EPM) or ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EDPM).
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
One of the European organizations responsible for establishing common industry-wide standards for telecommunications.
The most common solder alloy because of its low melting point (183oC/361oF). Can be any alloy that changes from a liquid to a solid state at a defined temperature.
A eutectic system is a mixture of chemical compounds or elements that has a single chemical composition that solidifies at a lower temperature than any other composition made up of the same ingredients. This composition is known as the eutectic composition and the temperature at which it solidifies is known as the eutectic temperature. On a phase diagram the intersection of the eutectic temperature and the eutectic composition gives the eutectic point. Non-eutectic mixtures will display solidification of one component of the mixture before the other. Not all binary alloys have a eutectic point; for example, in the silver-gold system the melt temperature and freeze temperature both increase monotonically as the mix changes from pure silver to pure gold
The amount of light lost in a coupler, beyond that inherent in the splitting to multiple output fibers.
Exothermic materials give off heat when they cure. When large quantities cure all at one time, the amount of heat given off (the exotherm) can be high enough to melt plastic containers.
Diameter of shrink tubing as supplied. When heated the tubing will shrink to its extruded diameter.
Extended Total Access Communications System (ETACS)
An analog cellular system used mainly in Europe. It has also been implemented in some areas in Japan, the United Kingdom, China, and other regions of the world. The ETACS was developed from the US Advanced Mobile Phone Service technology.
Substance added to an adhesive to reduce the amount of the primary binder required per unit area.
The effects of electrical waves or fields which cause spurious signals other than the desired intelligence, e.g. noise.
A device used for removing removable contacts from a connector. A device used for removing taper pins from taper pin receptacles. (MIL-STD)
Loss caused by imperfect alignment of fibers in a connector or splice such as lateral offset, angular misalignment, end separation, and end finish.
Cable with conductors which a re uniformly insulated and formed by applying a homogeneous insulation material in a continuous extrusion process.
A method of forcing thermoplastic, rubber or elastomer material under elevated temperature through a die to apply an insulation or a jacket to a cable.
Failure that occurs when a sealant is forced too far out of a joint by compression forces. The sealant may be abraded by dirt or folded over by traffic.
A 10-MHz personal-communications-services carrier serving a basic trading area in the 1890-to-1895-MHz range paired with 1970-to-1975-MHz.
Fabry-Perot (FP) laser
A multilongitudinal mode laser diode with a semiconductor on each end to form a resonant chamber to create the lasing effect. Used in digital applications. Limited to 10 Gb/s speeds and used only for digital transmission.
The method of glazing in which a rabbeted glazing recess, with no movable stop, is used and a triangular bead of compound is applied to the face of the lite and extended onto the recess (ASM C 717-07a).
A sealing of mated connectors over the whole area of the interface to provide sealing around each contact. (MIL-STD) Also called Interfacial Seal
Rupture of an adhesive bond such that the separation appears to be at the adhesive substrate interface.
Condition of bond failure in which the substrate falls apart. The cohesive strength of the adhesive and the adhesive forces between the adhesive and substrate exceed the internal strength of the material being bonded.
Condition in which a tape pulls completely away from the surface to which it is applied and drops off.
A ceiling that creates an area or space between the ceiling material and the structure above the material. Synonym: Drop Ceiling, Suspended Ceiling.
A device similar to a concentrator in that it provides multiple access to a single backbone tap.
A kit designed for loose tube cable structures with multiple fibers per buffer tube. The fanout kit provides a 900-?m tubing over each 250-?m coated fiber strand, which allows for additional protection.
Far End Crosstalk (FEXT)
Refers to the undesired coupling of signals from the transmit pair onto the receive pair at the other (=far) end. FEXT isolation is also expressed in dB. For some applications this is an important parameter, for most applications however, the NEXT values are more important.
Far-End Crosstalk Loss (FEXT)
A measure of the unwanted signal coupling from a transmitter at the near-end into a neighboring pair measured at the far-end.
The standard unit of capacitance whereby a charge of one coulomb produces a one volt potential difference. It indicates the charge per potential difference.
A conductive material used to contain or control an electric field. Placed between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer, it reduces coupling capacitance and common-mode noise. The shield provides electrostatic shielding while passing electromagnetic waves and requires no ground.
FOC specialty fiber market with connectors for more fiber sizes than any other company in the world (more than 40 hole sizes of SMA connectors, over 10 sizes of FCs, custom hole sizes (i.e., other than 125 um) in ST, SC, LC and other connectors).
Resistance to metal crystallization which leads to conductors of wires breaking from flexing.
A diagnostics feature on the IDEAL LAN Testers that allows you to determine where in a link a fault is located. (also see DOWNLINE IMPEDANCE)
A connector type used primarily for Singlemode fiberoptic cable. It offers precise alignment of the cable with respect to the transmitter and detector. Using a threaded receptacle and a locator notch, once installed the position is maintained with absolute accuracy.
The tapering of an adherend on one side to form a wedge section, as used in a scarf joint; in pressure sensitive tapes, a jagged, irregular paint line frequently characterized by small "feathers" of the top-coat projecting into the masked area.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
A board of five commissioners, appointed by the President, that regulates all electronic communications systems originating in the United States, including telephone systems. This government agency is responsible for the allocation of radio spectrum for communication services in the US
Insulators that carry a metal conductor through the chassis while preventing the 'hot' lead from shorting to the ground chassis.
A connector or terminal block usually having double-ended terminals which permit simple distribution and bussing of electrical circuits. Also used to describe a bushing in a wall or bulkhead separating compartments at different pressure levels with terminations on both sides.
Energy that is extracted from a high-level point in a circuit and applied to a lower level. Positive feedback reduces the stability of a device and is used to increase the sensitivity or produce oscillation in a system. Negative feedback, also called inv
In telecommunication or CATV systems, the transmission cable from the head end (signal pickup) to the trunk amplifier. Also called a Trunk Cable.
(1) A conductor that connects patterns on opposite sides of a PCB. Also called Interfacial Connection; (2) A connector or terminal block, usually having double-ended terminals which permit simple distribution and bussing of electrical circuits.
FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene)
Copolymer of PTFE and hexafluoropropylene. Electrical properties similar to PTFE, but temperature limited to 400°F (204°C).
Ferrimagnetic ceramic non-conductive compound material used to prevent high frequency electrical noise from entering or exiting the equipment.
Material made by calcining a combination of metal oxides sintered into tiles. Material only a few millimeters which absorbs low frequencies. These tiles may be used with dielectric materials or as a hybrid combination with dielectric pyramids.
A component of a connector that holds fiber in place and aids in its alignment, usually cylindrical in shape with a hole through the center. A short tube used to make solderless connections to shielded or coaxial cable. An item molded into the plastic inserts of multiple contact and fiber optic retaining springs can bear. Connections to provide strong, wear-resistant shoulders on which contact. A substance that is added to a material to improve its solidity, bulk , or other properties.
Any filament or fiber, made of dielectric materials, that guides light. Also, single discrete element used to transmit optical (light wave) information. See also Fiber Optics.
Most common are the erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), and Raman amplifiers, which are used to increase signal gain without electrical conversion.
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)
A piece of photo-refractive fiber that is exposed to high intensity UV interference patterns, causing it to reflect a specific wavelength while being transparent to all other wavelengths. Used as a filter in WDM systems.
Cords or rope made of vegetable fiber or synthetic fiber used in the center of a strand
A high speed point-to-point, ANSI Optical Communications Standard that supports data transfer rates up to 1,062.5 Mbs (1 Gps).
Controlled fracture of an optical fiber along a crystalline plane which results in a smooth surface.
A UV-cured material immediately surrounding the glass cladding that serves to protect the integrity of the fiber from surface damage and stresses. Normally 250 ?m for outside plant cables and 900 ?m for indoor cables.
Fiber Connector (FC)
A keyed connector with threaded coupling mechanism that has 2.5-mm ferrule. Mostly used in single-mode systems and test equipment.
Fiber Demarcation Box (FDB)
A fiber demarcation box provides a service provider with a customer disconnection point, either via a splice or connector interface. Slack cable storage and battery backup are stored here as well.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
100 Mb/s ring architecture data network.. An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for a fiber-based token ring physical and data link protocol that operates at a 100-Mbps data transfer rate. A duplex, counter-rotating, self-healing ring communication standard (ANSI X3T9) that provides a 100 Mb/s data format. Often used to interconnect low-speed protocols such as Token Ring and Ethernet.
A device that clamps onto a fiber and couples light from the fiber by bending, to identify the fiber and detect high speed traffic of an operating link or a 2 kHz tone injected by a test source.
Fiber in the loop (FITL)
An outside plant architecture deployed by telephone companies to provide broadband services to subscribers. In this architecture, SONET/SDH fiber runs from the telephone company central office to an optical networking unit. From the ONT, subscribers are served in a star topology with a drop of coax, twisted pair, or composite coax/twisted pair.
Fiber Optic Building Cable (LGBC)
A fiber optic cable in which individual optical fibers are formed into a cable for primary use in side building.
Fiber Optic Bundle
A number of fibers grouped together (rigid or flexible), usually carrying a common signal (or an image, or a conduit for transfer of light power).
Fiber Optic Cable
A communications cable that consists of one or more optical fibers, each capable of transmitting data via modulated light waves. Loose buffered types for outside plant applications can be armored or dielectric stranded or central tube designs. Applications include aerial figure-8, ducted, direct buried, all dielectric self-supporting (ADSS), and optical power ground wire (OPGW). Indoor designs are tight buffered breakout or distribution types with cable jackets designed to meet building codes for use in plenum, riser, and low smoke zero halogen environments.
Fiber Optic Connectors
Connectors designed to connect and disconnect either single or multiple optical fibers repeatedly. Fiber optic connectors are use to connect fiber cable to equipment and interconnect cables.
Fiber Optic Cross Connection
Fiber optic apparatus for terminating cable in couplings. Designed for high-density cross-connection fields, the apparatus can terminate up to 72 fibers on each shelf, with up to nine shelves in a bay frame. Single shelves can also be wall mounted. Cross connections are handled with fiber optic patch cords. See also Patch Cord.
Fiber Optic Cross-Connect (LGX) Distribution System
A component of fiber optic cross-connect hardware. This component accommodates 24-216 fiber terminations. Also referred to as an LGX or shelf or frame.
Fiber Optic Interconnect
An interconnection unit used for circuit administration and built from modular cabinets. It provides interconnection for individual optical fibers but, unlike the fiber optic cross-connect panel, it does not use patch cords or jumpers. The fiber optic interconnect provides some capability for routing and rerouting circuits, but is usually used where circuit rearrangements are infrequent.
Fiber Optic Splice
A fiber optic cable splice is used to join together 2 or 24 fiber optic cable ends, permanently.
Fiber Optic Test Procedure (FOTP)
Standardized methods for testing various fiber optic components, as specified in the TIA-455 standard.
Fiber Optic Test Protocols
A series of test procedures defined by the FO 6.2 committee of TIA. The procedures cover a wide number of situations, for example, verification by manufacturers of cable specifications, cable bend radius, connector manufacturing, fire rating, and field testing of fiber optic installations.
A lightwave or optical communications system in which electrical information is converted to light energy transmitted to another location through optical fibers, and is there converted back into electrical information. Branch of optical technology dealing with the transmission of radiant power through fibers made of transparent materials such as glass, fused silica, or plastic. Term used to describe links used for voice, video, data, medical, sensing, and illumination applications. All use optical fibers to transmit or receive optical signals or power. Light transmission through flexible transmissive fibers for communications or lighting.
Fiber Optics LAN Section
Known as FOLS, a group operating within the trade association operation of TIA. FOLS is dedicated to promoting the common interests of TIA members involved in fiberoptic telecommunications.
Fiber Proof Testing
A mechanical tensile test used to measure the axial strength of an optical fiber, normally 100 kpsi.
Fiber Saturation Point
The moisture content of wood at which all unbound moisture has been eliminated. This is typically about 30% Moisture Content.
A sensing device in which the active sensing element is an optical element attached directly to an optical fiber. The measured quantity changes the optical properties of the fiber so that it can be detected and measured.
Fiber surface finish
The quality of the polishing at the end of the fiber (1 mm, 0.3 mm, etc.). Some terms that describe a poor surface finish are: mist, hackle, chipped, or cracked.
In an FRP adhesively bonded joint, failure occurring exclusively within the fiber reinforced plastic matrix, charisterized by the appearance of reinforcing fibers on both ruptured surfaces.
Fiber to the building/business (FTTB)
A topological reference to a network that supports multiple subscribers in a single structure, i.e., a business or a building. Multiple dwelling unit (MDU) defines residential use and multiple tenant unit (MTU) defines business units.
Fiber to the cell (FTTCell)
Fiber to the cell tower. Used to provide greater bandwidth and to transition to IP requirements using Ethernet.
Fiber to the curb/customer (FTTC)
Distribution of communication services by providing fiber optic links to a central point in each neighborhood and continuing to the homes by either twisted pair or coax.
Fiber to the home (FTTH)
Distribution of communication services by providing fiber optic links all the way to each house. Protocols include active Ethernet and PON systems as defined by the IEEE, ITU, and SCTE.
Fiber to the node (FTTN)
An access network in which fiber is used for part, but not all, of the link from the OLT to the end user. An optical-to-electrical conversion takes place at a node, which typically serves a neighborhood. The terminal network segment is usually twisted copper pair (FTTC) or coaxial cable (HFC). Most current CATV and telephony networks have FTTN architectures.
An instrument that couples visible light into the fiber to allow visual checking of continuity and tracing for correct connections.
A loose, crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection.
Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP)
A plastic that contains fibers in various forms such as cloth, mat, strands, or chopped to enhance properties.
The trademark for glass which is formed into thin fibers and twisted and plied into yarns. It is used as protective braiding for cables. Normally saturated with silicone-base varnish to seal against moisture.
Fiber Optic Center term on their strong technical area in the manufacturing and testing of fiber optic cable assemblies, also known as patch cords. FOC is the only company in the world that can supply every piece of equipment needed to strip the cable, dispense and cure the epoxy, polish the terminated connector and perform all three kinds of testing: optical, geometry and visual inspection.
A high-speed interconnection ANSI standard for connecting supercomputers with peripheral devices up to 10 km away at transmission rates over 1 Gb/s. Used for the broadcast industry, storage area networks, and data centers.
Field Effect Transistor (FET)
One of the two main amplifier types. FETs have limited frequency but are less noisy than bipolar circuits.
Figure 8 polishing
When a connector is polished on a lapping film/plate combination in a Figure 8 pattern to minimize scratches by using a different area of the lapping film.
A device found on local area networks which sends requested files and programs to requesting nodes and stores files sent from nodes.
Ability of an adhesive to fill the space between substrates and hold the substrates in place.
A telephone cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable.
(1) A material used in the cable to fill large interstices between electrical components; (2) A substance, often inert, added to a compound to improve properties and/or decrease cost.
Sheet of deformable or resilient material which, when placed between the assembly to be bonded and the pressure applicator, or when distributed within a stack of assemblies, aids in providing uniform application of pressure over the area to be bonded.
Non-conducting components cabled with the uninsulated conductors or optical fibers to impart roundness, flexibility, tensile strength, or a combination of all three, to the cable.
That portion of an adhesive which fills the corner or angle formed where two adherends are joined.
An adhesive in film form, with or without a carrier, usually set by means of heat and/or pressure. The main advantage is uniformity of glueline thickness.
A devise which blocks the flow of EMI current while passing the desired 50/60/400-Hz current. When used in communications circuits, it suppresses unwanted frequencies and noise, or separates channels.
A beryllium copper electrical gasket used to bond metal panel members on doors, sills or covers.
A material, device, or assembly of parts installed in a cable system in a fire-rated wall or floor to prevent passage of flame, smoke, or gasses through the rated barrier.
Operating instructions for a processor permanently stored in devices such as EPROM’s, and ROM’s which are hardware.
A sample part or assembly manufactured prior to the start of production for the purpose of assuring that the manufacturer is capable of manufacturing a product which will meet the requirements.
Time needed for adhesive to reach sufficient strength to allow pieces to be handled and moved.
Fixture wires according to the National Electrical Code are designed for installation in lighting fixtures and in similar equipment where enclosed or protected and not subject to bending or twisting in use. They also are used for connecting lighting fixtu
Ability of a material to p revent the spread of combustion by a low rate of travel so the flame will not be conveyed.
Test methodologies of various organizations designed to simulate exposure to flame and burning, and the results of a material when tested under a specific methodology. Frequently used tests are UL94 (for testing materials as slabs or plaques), UL VW-1 or CSA FT1 (testing cable in a verticaly orientation), NEC CL2 (testing cables for general purpose communications which are installed within buildings), CSA FT6 (testing cable for horizontal flame and smoke)
A test to determine the ability of a cable to resist ignition when placed near a source of heat or flame and to self-extinguish when removed from this source.
A projection extending from or around the periphery of a connector with provisions to permit mounting the connector to a panel or to another mating connector half.
A thin film of material formed at the sides of a forging, casting or molded part where some of the material is forced between the faces of the dies or mold halves
Flash Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory is a form of computer semiconductor storage. It allows data in electronic format to be held without loss (unlike RAM) for an indefinite period (like ROM), and for the contents to be changed. It is a popular type of removable storage used for transporting data between recording devices and a PC.
The application of extremely thin deposits of a plating material for environmental protection or as a base for a subsequent layer of plating.
The lowest temperature at which the vapors being given off by a substance can be ignited.
A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at time of manufacture to a specified width.
A cable in flat form, where the conductors lying parallel longitudinally but essentially with flat surfaces.
A highly-reflection ferrule endface condition where fiber optic and ferrule tip are polished flat. Normally used with multimode fibers.
Wire rope made of parallel alternating right lay and left lay ropes sewn together by relatively soft wires
Flat Under Carpet Cable
A cable containing one or more cores, each formed of a group of wires, the diameters of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.
Angle between position of a rope at the extreme end wrap on a drum, and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum through the center of the nearest fixed sheave
Damage, usually occurring where a cord enters the housing, which is caused by the sharp bending of the cord. A strain relief or cable clamp restricts the concentration of flexing.
The number of cycles that a cable can withstand before failure when bent around a specific radius. The ability of a cable to bend many times before breaking.
Flex Life Test Types
Testing methodologies used to evaluate the durability and reliability of a cable or assemly under repeated bending. Three methods are frequently used: Weighted Bend, Bend, or Rolling Bend. The Weighted Bend test holds a section of the cable aligned within a fixed holder and with a weight attached to the calbe below the holder (applied load). At a specific distance from the holder, the free end is bent to a 90 degree angle in one direction and then reversed to a 90 degree angle in the opposite direction. This is one flex cycle. The Bend test is the same as the Weighted Bend test without a weight (no load) attached to the cable. The Rolling Bend test holds one end of the cable in a fixed holder, the cable is formed into a U shape, and the free end of the cable is moved back and forth keeping the sides of the U at a fixed distance apart during the cycling
The quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of outside force, as opposed to limpness which is bending due to the cable's own weight.
A cable containing one or more cores, each formed of a group of wires, the diameters of the wires being sufficiently small to afford flexibility.
The concept of wiring for future growth, by providing full coverage of information outlets.
The distributor used to connect between the horizontal cable and other cabling subsystems or equipment (see telecommunications closet).
A thermodynamic theory of polymer solutions, first formulated independently by Flory and by Huggins, in which the thermodynamic quantities of the solution are derived from a simple concept of combinational entropy of mixing and a reduced Gibbs-energy parameter, the `X parameter'. The X parameter is a numerical parameter employed in the Flory-Huggins theory, which accounts in the main for the contribution of the non-combinational entropy of mixing and for the enthalpy of mixing. (IUPAC)
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP)
FEP is similar to polytetrafluoroethylene (PTPE) but has a melting point of about 50° C lower and slightly different physical properties.
A film with very high and low temperature limits, and excellent electrical characteristics. Typically exhibit a very slippery on-sticking surface. Note: One example is DuPont’s Teflon®.
A polymer that contains atoms of fluorine. Typical fluoropolymers are TFE, FEP, PFA, ECTFE and PVF.
(1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field; (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface; (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion .
Foam Skin Cable
A cable utilizing a foamed polyolefin inner layer covered by a solid polyolefin skin as the conductor insulation.
An adhesive whose apparent density has been decreased by the presence of numerous gas-filled cells throughout its mass.
Resins in flexible or rigid sponge formed with the cells closed or interconnected. Foamed insulations provide low dielectric contestants and weight savings.
FOC Corporate Citizen
Fiber Optic Center support of select non-profit organizations by annual donations and hours of volunteerism.
Foil screened twisted pair cable (FTP)
A cable that use's a metallic Foil to surround the conductors in a Twisted Pair cable.
A thin supporting film of continuous sheet such as plastic foil, metal foil, laminated foil etc. for static shielding, contacts and other electrical applications.
A sleeve used to compress a grommet which tightens the seal around the wire entering the connector.
1) The area of the earth’s surface covered by a satellite signal. 2) The area of a printed circuit board covered by an electronic component such as a connector, IC, etc.
Forward error correction (FEC)
A method to improve the performance of large-capacity optical transmission systems. System designs employing FEC can accept relatively large BER (better than 10–12) in the optical transmission line before encoding.
Four wave mixing (FWM)
A collective name for a group of nonlinear processes where up to three different incident waves interact in the medium, resulting in a fourth wave.
A transmission circuit using a transmit pair and a receive pair, or four wires altogether.
A packet-based technology that provides LAN-to-WAN connectivity over telephone lines at up to 1.5 Mb/s.
FRD (Fire Retardant)
A rating used for cable with Teflon or equivalent jacket and insulation. Use this cable when local fire codes call for low flame and low smoke, or when cable is run through a forced-air plenum.
A chemical component that contains a free electron which covalently bonds with a free electron on another molecule.
An adjective referring to a chain macromolecule the segments of which produce such small frictional effects when moving in a medium such that the hydrodynamic field in the vicinity of a given segment is not affected by the presence of other segments. Thus, the solvent can flow virtually undisturbed through the domain occupied by a freely-draining macromolecule. degree of polymerization the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or oligomer molecule. (IUPAC)
The number of cycles, now expressed as hertz, by an alternating current in one second. The hertz is equivalent to the older unit cycles per second.
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Two or more signals combined at different frequencies so they can be transmitted as one signal.
Frequency Modulation (FM)
A scheme for modulating a carrier frequency in which the amplitude remains constant but the carrier frequency is displaced in frequency proportionally to the amplitude of the modulating signal. An FM broadcast is practically immune to atmospheric and man-made interference.
Because of their low power, radio frequencies assigned to one channel in a cellular system are limited to a single cell. Carriers are free, however, to re-use the frequencies again in other cells in the system without causing interference
The characteristic of a device denoting the range of frequencies over which it may be used effectively.
Frequency-Division Muliplexing (FDM)
Simultaneous transmission of two or more messages over the same cable medium. Also called Multiplexing.
Reflection of a portion of the incident light at a planar interface between connectors, mechanical splices, or two homogeneous media having different refractive indices.
A condition whereby mated surfaces move slightly and continually expose fresh metal. The exposed metal oxidizes and builds up until electrical continuity of the system is broken.
A form of excellerated oxidation that appears at the interface of contacting materials undergoing slight cyclic relative motion. All non-noble metals (i.e. tin) are susceptible to some degree of fretting corrosion and will suffer contact resistance increases.
A tensor correlating the frictional force F, opposing the motion of a particle in a viscous fluid, and the velocity u of this particle to the fluid. (IUPAC)
A connector mounted on the outside of a panel or box with its mounting flange outside the equipment. (MIL-STD) A front mounted connector can only be installed or removed from the outside of the equipment.
Front Release Contacts
Connector contacts are released form the front side of the connector and then removed from the rear (wire side) of the connector. The removal tool engages the front portion of the contact and pushes it out the rear where it is removed by hand.
Full Cycling Control
Controls placed on the crimping cycle of crimping tools forcing the tool to be closed to its fullest extent completing the crimping cycle before the tool can be opened. (MIL-STD)
In contrast to half-duplex devices, full duplex ones allow permanent, simultaneous two-way transmission of information, without interaction or interference of receive and transmit signals.
Full Duplex Ethernet
Full Duplex Ethernet will allow nodes to transmit and receive data at the same time, bringing aggregate throughput to 20 Mb/s. The CSMA/CD protocol may have to be disabled for the full duplex mechanism to function.
Full Duplex Transmission
1) Data transmission over a circuit capable of transmitting in both directions at the same time. 2) Synonymous with full duplex transmission. Also called Duplex Transmission.
Full spectrum wavelength division multiplexing (FSWDM)
A technology platform that uses spectrally enriched optical pulses for signal transmission at speeds of 10 Gb/s and higher.
Full width half maximum (FWHM)
Used to measure the spectral width of light sources. Measure the spectral width at 3 dB (half power from peak) and at the full width of the source’s power peak.
The primary can transmit to one secondary while simultaneously receiving from another secondary. In a typical multidrop LAN, the primary operates in full/full duplex mode while the secondaries operate in a half duplex mode.
A group of atoms on a monomer that can react with a group of atoms on a second monomer (Example: -COOH)
A safety device consisting of a strip of wire that melts and breaks an electric circuit if the current exceeds a safe level.
A metallic coating which has been melted and solidified, forming a metallurgical bond to the base material.
Individual strands of heavy tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating.
Fused Spiral Tape
A PTFE insulated hookup wire. The spiral wrapped conductor is passed through a sintering oven whereoverlaps are fused together.
An instrument that splices fiber by fusing or welding the fibers, typically by an electric arc. A mechanical device that optically joins optical fibers by discharging voltage between two electrodes. Variations include the single fiber and ribbon fixed V-groove types, the profile alignment splicer (PAS) and the local injection detection (LID), both of which are categorized as core alignment splicers.
G -PON encapsulation method (GEM)
A method of data encapsulation over the G-PON network, similar to ATM, that uses variable length frames to transport up to an encapsulated payload of 1500 bytes. Capable of sending ATM cells or Ethernet packets over the network.
The physical size of a wire, as in American Wire Gage (AEG). Can also be used in reference to determining connector interface critical dimensions.
The increase of voltage, current or power over a standard or previous reading. Usually expressed in decibels. Increased backscatter inherent within OTDR. Fiber measurements due to different core sizes or core mismatch. A gainer refers to an OTDR signature that shows splice loss in one direction and “gain” of the reflected signal in the opposite direction.
Gain flattening filter (GFF)
Due to nonlinearities in the amplitude, GFFs are used to restore wavelengths to their approximate intensities after they have been amplified by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. Also known as a gain equalization filter or dynamic gain equalizer.
A connector that permits the rapid and simultaneous connection and disconnection of two or more electrical circuits. (MIL-STD)
Ability of an adhesive to fill the space between substrates and hold the substrates in place.
An adhesive capable of forming and maintaining a bond between surfaces that are not close-fitting. Discussion—Close-fitting is relative to a given material and industry; for example, standards in construction differ from standards in electronics. Some adhesives will bond by bridging without completely filling the gap, others by filling the gap completely.
Gas Filled Cable
A self-contained pressure cable in which the pressure medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation.
The characteristic of a contact that is impervious to ingress by corrosive gases. The common area between mated-metal surfaces from which gas vapours and impuities are excluded.
A component made from an elastomer, such as rubber, to provide an environmental seal in the interface of a connector pair. Also called a "grommet".
1) A node common to two or more networks through which data flows from network to network. The gateway may reformat the data as necessary and also may participate in error and flow control protocols. Used to connect LANs employing different protocols and to connect LANs to public data networks. See also Port. 2) A function designed to facilitate electronic access by users to remote services. Gateways provide a single source where users can locate and gain access to a wide variety of services.
A separation technique in which separation mainly according to the hydrodynamic volume of the molecules or particles takes place in porous non-adsorbing material with pores of approximately the same size as the effective dimensions in solution of the molecules to be separated. (IUPAC)
A structured telecommunications cabling system, capable of supporting a wide range of applications. Generic cabling can be installed without prior knowledge of the required applications. Application-specific hardware is not a part of generic cabling.
A satellite whose speed is synchronized with the speed of the earth’s rotation so that it is always in the same spot over the earth (geo-synchronous orbit). Most geo-synchronous satellites operate 22,300 miles above the equator.
An OTDR signature caused by an optical echo that occurs when light reflects off two reflective surfaces, creating a false image at double the distance from the initial event.
IEEE 802.3z. A standard for a high-speed Ethernet, capable of transmitting data at one billion bits per second. It provides increased network bandwidth and interoperability, and can be used in backbone environments to interconnect multiple lower-speed Ethernet systems.
Gigabit PON (G-PON)
Standardized in ITU-T G.984, G-PON handles data rates up to 2.5 Gb/s and allows split ratios up to 1:64. The standard features the G-PON encapsulation method (GEM), which allows for the transmission of Ethernet packets and ATM cells.
A short length of wire soldered onto a circuit component and used as a small adjustable capacitor.
The pure, solid glass mass formed after sintering an oxide preform. This glass blank undergoes a drawing process to become optical fiber.
Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
The temperature at which an adhesive will become markedly less elastic and flexible.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A network of satellites developed by the US Department of Defense that provides precise location determination to special receivers.
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
The European digital cellular transmission standard which has been adopted by several other countries around the world for cellular and personal communications services. It was originally called the Groupe SpecialeMobile.
Originally, a hard gelatin obtained from hides, tendons, cartilage, bones, etc. of animals. Also, an adhesive prepared from this substance by heating with water. Through general use the term is now synonymous with the term “adhesive.”
A hard gelatin obtained from hides, tendons, cartilage, bones, etc., of animals, and also an adhesive prepared from this substance by heating with water.
A series cold clamps arranged and used like a Ferris wheel. This permits a large number of panels to be clamped and stored within a small area.
The standard coating for contacts over a base of either nickel or copper. Used primarily as a coating or plating material because of its electrical properties.
General purpose interface bus. Also known as the IEEE-488 bus. One method of providing communication between various test equipment and controllers .
Graded index (GI)
A type of multimode fiber which used a graded profile of refractive index in the core material to correct for dispersion.
Graded Index Fiber (Fiber Optic)
A multimode fiber whose core refractive index increases in controlled fashion outward from the axis and matches the cladding refractive index at the core-clad interface. Has greater bandwidth than step index fiber, but less bandwidth than single mode fiber.
A type of optical fiber in which the refractive index of the core is in the form of a parabolic curve, decreasing toward the cladding. This type of fiber provides high bandwidth capabilities.
An optical fiber core that has a non-uniform index of refraction. The core is composed on concentric rings of glass, which have refractive indices that decrease from the center axis. The refractive index is changed in a systematic way from the center to t
Graded-index multimode fiber (GI-MMF)
A type of multimode fiber where the refractive index of the fiber core decreases radically towards the outside of the fiber. Four types of GI-MMF have been specified in IEC 60793-2: legacy OM1 (62.5/125) and OM2 (50/125) fibers and the newer, high bandwidth, laser-optimized OM3 and OM4 fiber (both 50/125), designed for VCSEL lasers and Gigabit data rates.
Graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF)
A plastic multimode fiber with a bandwidth of up to 3 GHz per 100 meters.
Classification of wire rope by its breaking strength. In order of increasing breaking strengths they are Iron, Traction, Mild Plow Steel. Plow Steel, Improved Plow Steel, Extra Improved Plow Steel
Classification of strand by its breaking strength. In order of increasing breaking strengths they are Common, Siemens Martin, High Strength and Extra-high Strength. A Utilities grade strand is also made to meet special requirements
A copolymer that is a graft polymer. In a graft copolymer, adjacent blocks are constitutionally different, i.e., each of these blocks comprises constitutional units derived from different characteristic species of monomer or with different composition or sequence distribution of constitutional units. (IUPAC)
A macromolecule with one or more species of block connected to the main chain as side chains, these side chains having constitutional or configurational features that differ from those in the main chain. (IUPAC)
This refers to the relative cohesive strength an adhesive, glue, or mastic has in the wet state. Same as green grab or initial tack. See also tack.
Network deployment in an area under development. Since everything is being built for the first time, network construction can be done with few obstructions and installation can be accomplished parallel to other utilities.
When contacts in a multiple contact connector are spaced in a geometric pattern. (MIL-STD)
A rubber seal used on the cable side of multiple contact connector to seal the connector against moisture, dirt or air.
An elastomeric seal used on the cable side of a connector to seal the connector against moisture, dirt and air. (MIL-STD)
Gross Tonnage and Net Tonnage
The Ship Measurement Convention of 1969 has been in force for new tonnage since 1984, and was made mandatory for all vessels from 18th July 1994. This means a transition from the terms gross register tons (grt)and net register tons (nrt) to gross tons (GT) and net tons (NT). The gross tonnage forms the basis for manning regulations, safety rules and registration fees. Both gross and net tonnage are used to calculate port dues. GT is the vessel's enclosed spaces, while NT is the volume of a vessel's cargo holds.
1) The connection between an electrical circuit and the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth thus making a complete electrical circuit. 2) A conducting connection between an electrical circuit and the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth, making a complete electrical circuit. 3) A common voltage reference point, such as chassis or earth.
A conductor in a transmission cable or line that is grounded. An electrical conductor for the connection to the earth, making a complete electrical circuit.
The insulation used between a winding and the magnetic core or other structural parts, usually at ground potential.
A completed circuit between shielded pairs of a multiple pair created by random contact between shields. An undesirable circuit condition in which interference is created by ground currents when grounds are connected at more than one point.
Ground Power Cable
A cable assembly fitted with appropriate terminations to supply power to an aircraft from ground power unit.
GFCI – Ground-Fault Circuit-Interrupter. An electrical wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the electric current is not balanced between the energized conductor and the return neutral conductor. Such an imbalance is sometimes caused by current leakage through the body of a person who is grounded and accidentally touching the energized part of the circuit.
A conductor which provides a current return path from an electrical device to ground.
A set of spring ingers provided in the connector to allow shell to shell grounding, before contacts mate and after they separate.
A pin or rod extending beyond the mating faces of a connector designed to guide the closing or mating of the connector to ensure proper engagement of contacts. (MIL-STD)
Any of a class of colloidal substances, exuded by or prepared from plants, sticky when moist, composed of complex carbohydrates and organic acids, which are soluble or swell in water.
A trade name of Allied Chemical for their copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluor-ethylene. Abbreviation ECTFE.
A telecommunications device allowing two-way transmission of signals or other information, but only in one direction at a time. Thus a half-duplex device cannot simultaneously transmit and receive, though interspersed bursts in each direction are possible.
Half Duplex Transmission
1) Data transmission over a circuit capable of transmitting in either direction, but only one direction at a time. 2) Mode of operation between two communications devices where only one of them can send or receive at a time.
A term used to identify any of the four elements chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine, grouped together because their chemical properties are similar.
Identifies if a thermoplatic polymer, elastomer, or thermoset rubber has or contains halogen elements. Halogen is an electro-negative atomic element which, if combined with a metal, forms a haloid salt. Halogens are chloride, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. Halogen containing compounds, if exposed to flame, produce corrosive and potentially toxic fumes. Materials can be identified as either halogen-gree or as halogenated.
A designation for gases produced during flame and burning of materials or cables. Halogen-free materials do not release potentially toxic chlorine or fluorine gasses. Toxicity of gases under flame and burning conditions is a factor in persons' survivability. There is a test methodology for toxicity which is CTI and the test method is UTE C 20.
An access opening provided in equipment or in a below-the-surface enclosure into which personnel reach, but do not enter, to work with or place cable. Also known as maintenance access handhole.
Cellular systems are designed so that a phone call can be initiated while driving in one cell and continued as more cells are driven through. The transfer to a new cell is called the handoff and is designed to be transparent to the cellular phone user. This handoff is achieved by network computers which assign the call to another tower just as the user passes from one cell to another, ensuring continuous service.
Exchange of predetermined signals when a connection is established between two data set devices.
Hard Clad Silica (Fiber Optic)
Abbreviated HCS, it is a structure in fibers where the cladding around the glass core is a hard plastic, as opposed to a "PCS," which is a soft plastic cladding.
The process of changing a measurement from inch-pound units to nonequivalent metric units that necessitates physical configuration changes outside those permitted by established measurement tolerances. See Soft Conversion
Hard Cure, AL-33xx Series
ÅngströmLink® hard materials with Shore D durometer. All are suited to making thin films for use in PCB optical waveguides, microlens arrays, prism films, or low dielectric layers. Can be applied by spin coating. Compatible with CMOS substrates and fabrication techniques. Excellent adhesion and chemical resistance.
A substance or mixture of substances added to an adhesive to promote or control the curing reaction by taking part in it. The term is also used to designate a substance added to control the degree of hardness of the cured fill. Same as curing agent. See also catalyst.
A general term that correlates with strength, rigidity and resistance to abrasion or penetration. Measured on Shoer or Rockwell scales.
A cable adapter used to change an Amphenol type 50 pin Telco connector into multiple RJ-45’s or RJ-11’s.
An international coding system for specifying the attributes of cord voltages, jackets, diameters, etc.
1)An arrangement of wires and cables, usually with many breakouts, which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath, used to interconnect electric circuits. 2)A group of wires or cables routed together with attached connectors and components, secured to provide a pre-shaped electrical wire or cable assembly.
Harness , Outdoor use
(Also Cable) Outdoor Use Cables/Harnesses: Product expected to withstand exposure to he elements of weather.
Tying tapes, lacing cords, and flexible sleevings which are used for wire and cable bundling, harnessing, and holding. Other devices include plastic ties or clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing, and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.
Ignitable vapors, dust, or fibers that may cause fire or explosion as defined by the NEC.
A positioner designed to attach to a crimping tool in place of a turret head. (MIL-STD)
The point in a LAN where the inbound signals are transferred into outbound signals. The headend may be passive or contain an amplifier or frequency translation equipment. Used in broadband LANs and CATV.
Heat Activated Adhesive
A type of adhesive pre-applied to one or both adherends, that is rendered tacky by application of heat and forms a bond on cooling.
The time of heat aging that a material can withstand before failing a specific physical or electrical test.
Test to determine the stability of a material when exposed to a sudden high temperature change for a short period of time.
A process that uses precise heating and tooling of metals after stamping and forming in order to optimize internal stresses and spring properties.
Flexible stranded copper conductor, cotton wrapped with rubber insulation and asbestos roving .
The ability of a tape to with_stand exposure to specified temperatures after applica_tion to a surface. Clean removal after exposure may or may not be important depending on the intended func_tion of the tape and the type of adhesive.
A continuous, colored, spiral stripe applied over the outer perimeter of an insulated conductor for circuit identification purposes.
The standard unit of inductance. The inductance of a current is a one Henry when a current variation of one ampere per second induces one volt.
A connector design which utilized pin and socket contacts in a balanced arrangement such that both mating connectors are identical. The contacts may also be hermaphroditic and may be arranged as male and female contacts as for pins and sockets. Hermaphroditic contacts may also be used in a manner such that one half of each contact mating surface protrudes beyond the connector interface and both mating connectors are identical (MIL-STD)
A contact design which is a combination pin and socket and which mates with other contacts of the same design. (MIL-STD) Both mating elements are precisely alike at their mating face
Permanently sealed by fusion, soldering, or other means to prevent the transmission of air, moisture vapor, and all other gases. Hermeticity is usually expressed as the rate of leakage volume of tracer gas (such as helium) per second in time.
Connector contacts are bonded to the connector by glass or other materials which permit maximum leakage rate of gas through the connector of 1.0 micron ft./hr. at one atmosphere pressure for special applications.
A gas-tight enclosure that has been completely sealed by fusion or other comparable means.
Unit of measure of frequency of alternating current. One hertz is equal to one cycle per second.
A cable insulating system composed of two or more layers of different insulating materials.
A test designed to determine the highest potential that can be applied to a conductor without breaking through the insulation.
High definition television (HDTV)
Digital television with significantly more resolution than that provided by a good NTSC or PAL television signal. The specific resolution can vary, however it is typically about twice the resolution of standard television signals, and has a wider aspect ratio.
High Frequency (HF)
The band from 3 MHz to 30 MHz in the radio spectrum, as designated by the Federal Communications Commission.
High performance parallel interface (HIPPI)
A system for high-speed supercomputer-to-supercomputer connectivity above 1 Gb/s.
High Strength Alloy Conductor
A conductor which shows a maximum 20% increase in resistance and a minimum of a 70% increase in breaking strength over the equivalent construction in pure copper while exhibiting a minimum elongation of 5% in 10 inches.
High temperature crossover (TxOver)
Temperature at which an adhesive loses its elastomeric properties and melts to a flowable liquid. This value is a stability indicator for high temperature applications. For example, the higher the value, generally, the more heat stable the product is.
High Temperature Wire and Cable
Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher.
High Voltage (HV)
Cables rated over 35Kv. The National Electrical Code defines any cable over 600 volts as High Voltage for the purposes of Article 710. However, Article 326 delineates the generally accepted parameters of Medium Voltage and High Voltage .
High wire resistance
The expected connection is established but the current is weak due to current being limited as it runs through the connection.
Typically, connectors with multiple fibers in a small form factorhousing, i.e., MPO/MTP, MT-RJ.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
A jacketing material used in harsh environments to protect cables from accidental chemical exposure.
High-Lever Data Link Control (HDLC)
The protocol defined by ISO in 1976 for bit-oriented, frame-delimited data communications
The unwinding or dispensing of tapes at a relatively high rate of speed, usually over 50 feet per minute.
Higher Performance Radio Local-Area Network (HIPERLAN)
HIPERLAN is the European standard for short-range (approx. 50m) high performance radio local-area networks. HIPERLAN operates in the 5.1-to-5.3-GHz band. Another band may be available in the future operating in the 17.1-to-17.3-GHz range, but as of 8/97, specifications have not been finalized.
A small defect, particularly in an electrical or pipe wrapping tape, which lowers the dielectric strength at the point of the defect below a certain desired minimum.
Home Location Register
The data base of customer information that makes subscriber information available to a mobile-telephone switching office. The register functions as a network element.
A PON architecture where the optical splitter is housed at the service provider’s facility. Home runs are the easiest for handling changes, but require a fiber rich cabling system as one fiber is dedicated for each subscriber. A cable run going from a workstation or office directly back to a wiring closet with no other connections. Physical star topologies consist exclusively of home runs.
A complete cable insulation structure whose components cannot be identified as layers of different materials.
a polymer derived from one species of (real, implicit, or hypothetical) monomer. Note many polymers are made by mutual reaction of complementary monomers. These monomers can readily be visualized as reacting to give an "implicit monomer", the homopolymerization of which would give the actual product, which can then be regarded as a homopolymer. Example poly(ethylene terephthalate). Some polymers are obtained by modification of other polymers such that the structure of the macromolecules that constitute the resulting polymer can be thought of as having been formed by homopolymerization of a "hypothetical monomer". These polymers can be regarded as homopolymers. Example poly(vinyl alcohol). (IUPAC)
An enclosure attached to the back of a connector to contain and protect the wires and cable attached to the terminals of a connector.See also Backshell.
Single conductor used to hook-up electrical parts of instruments for low current and voltage (under 1000 volts).
The wiring/cabling between the telecommunications outlet/connector and the horizontal cross-connect.
Horizontal Cross-Connect (HC)
A cross-connect of horizontal cabling to other cabling, e.g., horizontal, backbone or equipment. Could be a patch panel or LAN (small) panel.
Horizontal Length (HL)
The cable distance from the information outlet to the blue field of the cross connect. In SYSTIMAX� SCS, this is referred to as the Horizontal Subsystem.
The part of the premises distribution system installed on one floor that includes the cabling and distribution components connecting the riser backbone or equipment wiring to the information outlet.
A colored stripe running horizontally with the axis of a conductor, sometimes called a longitudinal stripe, used as a means of circuit identification.
The part of a premises distribution system installed on one floor that includes the cabling and distribution components connecting the Riser backbone Subsystem to the information outlet via cross-connect components of the Administration Subsystem.
A microwave antenna made by flaring out the end of a circular or rectangular waveguide in the shape of a horn. It is used for radiating radio waves into space.
Term describing a Host computer. A central computer responsible for the control of time-share terminals and other peripherals. Usually associated with minicomputers and mainframes.
1) A computer attached to a network providing primarily services such as computation, database access or special programs or programming languages.��2) An information processor which provides supporting services and/or guidance to users and/or satellite processors, terminals and other subsidiary devices. A host processor generally is assumed to be self-sufficient and to require no supervision from other processors.��3) Compare with communications computer.
A term denoting the covering of a surface by means of dipping the surface to be coated into a molten bath of the coating material.
A type of connector pre-loaded with epoxy. The connector must be heated to liquefy epoxy for fiber optic insertion. The ferrule is then cooled to re-harden the epoxy. Manufactured by 3M.
Method of alpha numerical coding. Identification markings are made by pressing heated type and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces. See Surface Printing .
A thermoplastic adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond upon cooling to a solid state.
A thermoplastic adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond upon cooling to a solid state.
Connectorless insert but with insert retaining and positioning hardware required by standard construction. (MIL-STD)
Hub activation tests transmit a signal to a 10 BASE-T hub to verify it is operational.
A term used to describe 60 or 120 cycle sound present in the sound of some communication equipment, usually the result of either undesired coupling to 60 cycle source or defective filtering of 120 cycle rectifier output.
An assembly of two or more different types of cable units, cables or categories covered by an overall sheath. It may be covered by an overall shield.
Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC)
A hybrid system, used by the CATV industry, that employs a fiber optic backbone and coax cables for final distribution from the node to the customer.
Dupont's trade name for their chlorosulfonated polyethylene, an ozone resistant synthetic rubber.
The lag between a cause and effect; temperature change and resultant electrical phase changes in cable when the temperature returns to the initial point of measurement.
A device that arbitrates the I/O channel and controls data transfer between devices attached to the channel.
IBM Token Ring
A token passing network topology that conforms to the IEEE 802.5 definition and documents. Operating at 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps, it is the chief topology used to interconnect small and mid-size equipment from IBM and other vendors.
Abbreviation of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-e) is an international organization for the advancement of technology related to electricity.
Designation for the IEEE subcommittee which is developing the wireless local-area network standard. This standard is being formulated to provide interoperability of wireless local-area-network products.
Guidelines describing the physical and data link layers of the OSI network model for various topologies.
IM /PIM (Passive Intermodulation)
The generation of new, and in the case of cable assemblies, undesirable signals called intermodulation products, at the non-linear characteristics of transmission elements
A test that determines the ability of fiber optic cables and cable assemblies to withstand repeated impact loads. It measures the number of broken fibers, damage to the outer sheath, and any change in the optical transmittance or attenuation. Specified in the TIA/EIA 455-25 “Repeated Impact testing of Fiber Optic Cables and Cable Assemblies” fiber optic test procedure.
impact resistance (shock resistance)
The ability of a tape to resist sudden pulls or shocks as may some_times be encountered by packages in transit.
Test for ascertaining the punishment a cable configuration can withstand without physical or electrical breakdown, by impacting with a given weight, dropped a given distance in a controlled environment.
Device used to punch new conductor onto ID's. This tool is typically equipped with a cutting blade for either 66 or 110 blocks.
The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency. It is a combination of resistance R and reactance X, measured in ohms. Resistance to flow of an alternating current at a particular frequency, expressed in ohms. It is a combination of resistance R and reactance X, measured in ohms.
A condition in which the impedance of a particular circuit cable or component is the same as the impedance of the circuit, cable or device to which it is connected.
Connecting cables and devices together which have the same impedance value in ohms.
Impedance Matching Stub
A section of transmission line or pair of conductors cut to match the impedance of a load. Also called matching stub.
Impedance Matching Transformer
A transformer designed to match the impedance of one circuit to that of another.
In a transmission cable of infinite length, the ratio of the applied voltage to the resultant current at the point the voltage is applied. Or the impedance which makes a transmission cable seem infinitely long, when connected across the cable’s output terminals.
Intermittent, short, high frequency, high amplitude pulses that are induced into a transmission line. Can cause data corruption and in some cases hardware damage.
The voltage breakdown of insulation under voltage surges on the order of microseconds in duration.
An insulation test in which the voltage applied is an impulse voltage of specified wave shape.
Incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC)
The dominant phone carrier within a geographic area that provides local exchange service to that area.
The part of a crimping die, usually the moving part, which indents or compresses the contact barrel. (MIL-STD)
Index matching fluid
A liquid used of refractive index similar to glass used to match the materials at the ends of two fibers to reduce loss and back reflection.
Index of Refraction (IR)
The ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. When light strikes the surface of a transparent material, some light is reflected while some is bent (refracted) as it enters. The IR is used to calibrate OTDRs for measuring fiber length.
Indirect Lightning Effects
Refers to the damage to or malfunction of electronic systems that results from a nearby lightning discharge.
Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs)
The components of crystalline semiconductors used in fiber optic photodetectors.
An electric current set up in a circuit by cutting lines of force; a current caused by electromagnetic induction.
The property of a circuit or circuit element that opposes a change in current flow, thus causing current changes to lag behind voltage changes. It is measured in Henrys.
An influence exerted by a charged body or by a magnetic field on adjacent bodies without apparent communication.
Heating a conducting material by placing it in a rapidly changing magnetic field. The changing field induces electric currents in the material and I2R losses account for the resultant heat.
Crosstalk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other.
Industrial Scientific Medical
The unlicensed radio band in North America and some European countries. Also referred to as Part 15.247, this FCC regulation defines the parameters for use of the ISM bands in the US, including power output, spread spectrum, and non-interference. The commonly used ISM bands include 902-to-928-MHz, 2400-to-2483-MHz and 5725-to-5850-MHz.
A high bandwidth switched network topology currently being developed for Storage Area Networks (SANS).
The range of electromagnetic wavelengths between the visible part of the spectrum (750 nm) and microwaves (30 µm).
The fixed transmitting and receiving equipment in a communications system. This usually consists of base station, base station controllers, antennas, switches, management information systems and any other equipment that makes up a system which sends and receives signals from mobile or handheld subscriber equipment and/or the public-switched telephone network.
A collection of those telecommunications components, excluding equipment, that together provide the basic support for the distribution of all information within a building or campus.
Inherent viscosity/logarithmic viscosity number
The ratio of the natural logarithm of the relative viscosity to the mass concentration of the polymer. (IUPAC)
The first step in addition polymerization in which a highly reactive species is generated, usually a free radical
Injection Laser Diode (ILD)
A laser in which the lasing occurs at the junction of n-type semiconductor materials. Sometimes called a diode laser.
A male flange mounted wiring device with the conducting pins protruding and exposed. This type device should never be wired to make the exposed pins live while the mating device is unplugged.
The central conductive member in a coaxial structure, such as the center contact in a coaxial connector.
Usually a nonmetallic pathway that may be placed within a duct to facilitate initial and subsequent placement of multiple cables in a single duct.
A signal (or power) which is applied to a piece of electric apparatus or the terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied.
The machine or device used to insert information, data or instructions into a computing system or the medium or device used to transfer information or data, usually processed data, from a computing system to the outside world. Input/output also can refer to the act of entering or retrieving information.
That part which holds the contacts in their proper arrangement and electrically insulates them from each other and from the shell.
Insert Electrical Connector
An insulating element with or without contacts designed to position and support contacts in a connector. (MIL-STD
Axial load in either direction that na insert must withstand without being dislocated from its normal poition in the connector shell.
Insert Retention Force
The maximum allowable force which, if applied to the mating face of a connector insert, does not displace the insert permanently from its normal position in the connector housing or jeopardize or damage the insert or connector housing retention provision.
The element that holds connector contacts in their proper arrangement and electrically insulates the contacts from one another and from the connector shell.
The ratio between the power received at a specified load before and after the insertion of a filter at a given frequency. It is an indication of the attenuation provided by a filter.
A device which conforms to the gaging limits specified on the applicable tool specification sheet.
A hole placed at one end of a crimp contact barrel to insure proper insertion of the conductor prior to crimping. (MIL-STD)
A microscope or digital scope that inspects ferrule and termini fiber endfaces for polishing quality, damage, or contamination.
A device used to install contacts into a connector. A device used to install taper pins into taper pin receptacles.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
A standards organization representing the United States on the ISO in the areas of electrical or electronic standards. Writes standards on communications including Ethernet and OPGW and ADSS cables.
A solderless terminal with an insulated sleeve over the barrel to prevent a short circuit in certain installations.
A device which mechanically couples and electrically insulates the sheath and armor of contiguous lengths of cable.
1) A material which offers high electrical resistance making it suitable for covering components, terminals and wires to prevent the possible future contact of the adjacent conductors resulting in a short circuit. This is often called a dielectric. 2) A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current.
The degree of tightness of the insulation over the base conductor, measured in terms of force required to remove a specified length of insulation from the wire.
The degree of tightness of the insulation over the base conductor, measured in terms of force required to remove a specified length of insulation from the wire.
A non-metallic covering applied around a metallic conductor or optical fiber to provide electrical isolation and/or moisture protection.
Area of a terminal, splice or contact that has been formed aroind the insulation of the wire.
An extended cylinder at the rear of a contact designed to accept the bared wire and a small length of its insulation. When crimped, both the wire and insulation are held firmly in place.
The type of wire terminals that require no wire stripping; when the wire is correctly attached, its insulation is displaced (pierced) to form a connection.
Insulation Displacement Connector (IDC)
An assembly process wherein an insulation piercing edge of the contact is pushed through the insulation and into contact with the wire by the assembly press. Most commonly used in mass termination applications. A mass termination connector for flat cable with contacts that displace the conductor insulation to establish simultaneous contact with all conductors.
Extended cylinders at the rear of crimp-type contacts designed to accept the bared wire and a small length of its insulation.
A designation used to identify the insulation thickness required to protect a high voltage cable under ground fault conditions. Expressed as a percentage (e.g. 100% level, 133% level).
A method of crimping whereby lances cut the insulation of the wires and enter into the strands to make electrical contact.
The electrical resistance of the insulating material (determined under specified conditions) between any pair of contacts, conductors, or grounding device in various combinations.
Insulation Resistance (IR) failure
Insulation fails to properly separate points at a required level. The insulation resistance is sufficient to prevent a short, yet is not high enough to meet the insulation resistance specification.
Insulation Shield (HV Cable)
A two part shield consisting of a non-metallic component and a metallic component. The first component is an extrusion of black semi-conducting thermoset material over the insulation which provides uniform radial stress distribution across the insulation.
High voltage stress which causes molecular separation in the insulation at sharp projections in the conductor. Controlled by conductor and insulation shielding, called a stress relief shield. Measured in volts per mil. The molecule separation pressure caused by a potential difference across an insulator. The practical stress on insulation is expressed in volts per mil.
The portion of a barrel similar to an insulation grip except that it is not compressed around the conductor insulation. (MIL-STD)
All of the insulation materials used to insulate a particular electrical or electronic product.
A material such as ceramic, rubber, or plastic that blocks the flow of electric current. An insulator is a poor conductor because it has a high resistance to such flow.
A layer of insulation or semi-conductive material applied by extrusion over two or more insulated, twisted or parallel conductors, to form a round smooth diameter.
A microscopic array of electronic circuits and components that has been implanted onto the surface of a single crystal, or chip, of semiconducting material such as silicon. It is called an integrated circuit because the components, circuits, and base material are all made together, or integrated, out of a single piece of silicon. An integrated circuit is commonly referred to as an IC.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Integrated voice and data network based on digital communications technology and standards interfaces.
Optical mixing chamber fitted to Detector, allowing use multi-channel connectors like MPO.
Buildings that maximize the efficiency of its occupants and allow effective management of resources with minimum life-time costs (Source: European Intelligent Building Group).
A terminal which contains an integral microprocessor with some logical capability.
Characteristic of connectors in which a connector half of one manufacturer will mate directly with a connector half manufactured by a different company.
1) Center to center conductor spacing is paired wire or 2) center to center spacing between conductors in a flat cable.
A network that provides communications between buildings, e.g., college campus, office park, or military installation.
Characteristic of connectors in which one manufacturer's connector can be replaced by one of another manufacturer and provide the same function in the same panel space as the connector it replaced.
A connection scheme that provides for the direct connection of individual cables to another cable or to an equipment cable without a patch cord.
The physical wiring between components (outside a module) between modules, between units or between larger portions of a system or systems.
Interexchange carrier (IXC)
Any common carrier that provides long-distance services, i.e., Sprint or AT&T.
1) Shared boundary defined by common physical interconnection characteristics (often including a connector), signal characteristics and meanings of interchanged signals. 2) A device or equipment making inter-operation of two systems possible; for example, a hardware component or common storage register. 3)The two surfaces on the contact side of a mating connector or plug-in component (e.g. relay) and receptacle, which face each other when mated. (MIL-STD)
The compression of the resilient material which faces the mating inserts and provides positive sealing and insulation when plug and receptacle are fully engaged or mated.
A sealing of mated connectors over the whole area of the interface to provide sealing around each contact. (MIL-STD)
Any to electrical signal induced into a conductor by electrical or electro-magnetic means. A signal impairment caused by the interaction of another unwanted signal. Electrical or electromagnetic disturbances which introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment. Disturbances of an electrical or electromagnetic nature that introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment.
Measured on an interferometer, the dark lines or “bands” optically projected across the face of an object to determine its shape by means of measured elevation.
A measurement instrument that projects interference bands across the face of fiber optic connector. The bands are used to determine the centering, angle of apex offset and radius of curvature of the fiber optic connector.
Intermediate Cross-Connect (IC)
A cross connect between first and second level backbone cabling. It can be between main (MC) and horizontal (HC). Normally would consist of a patch panel.
Intermediate distribution frame (IDF)
A metal rack located in an equipment room or closet that is designed to connect cables. It consists of components that provide the connection between interbuilding cabling and the intrabuilding cabling.
A frequency to which a signal is converted for ease of handling. Receives its name from the fact that it is an intermediate step between the initial and final conversion or detection stages.
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range from 31 to 99°C (87 to 211°F).
Chemical compounds formed between the metals present in the solder, base metal and protective platings. Intermetallic formation is necessary for good solder joints, but excessive intermetalics can cause brittleness.
The intended electrical path contains an unintended gap that appears and disappears when the assembly is flexed.
An unintended connection between 2 or more parts which appears and disappears when the assembly is flexed.
A phenomenon that occurs when two or more fundamental frequencies are present in an electronic circuit and produce spurious signals that are sum and differences of the fundamental frequencies.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
An international standards body responsible for a wide range of recommendations and standards for telecommunications.
International Standards Organization (ISO)
The organization responsible for the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) standards. International Standards Organization.
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
The international body for communications standards. The telecommunications group within ITU is designated as ITU-T.
International Telegraphy and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT)
A standards organization that, among numerous other activities, specializes in the electrical and functional characteristics of switching equipment. The CCITT sets standards for interfaces to ensure compatibility between data communications equipment (DCE) and date terminating equipment (DTE).
Internet protocol (IP)
A set of rules for how data is transmitted from place to place on the Internet. IP is a connectionless protocol in which data is broken down into small bundles known as packets. Each packet is transmitted separately, possibly along a different route than other packets from the same message.
Internet protocol address
A protocol on which the Internet is based, this software describing standard tracks addresses for different nodes, routes outgoing messages, and recognizes incoming messages.
Internet protocol television (IPTV)
A compressed digitized video provided through packet or cell transmission (FTTH) to subscribers.
Internet service provider (ISP)
An organization whose business is connecting users to the Internet. By serving as the interface between end users and the Internet, the ISP’s equipment is analogous to a CATV head end or telephony CO.
The connection of multiple networks for data interchange. This is normally accomplished with interface devices such as bridges, brouters and gateways.
In an adhesive joint, a region of finite dimension extending from a point in the adherend where the local properties (chemical, physical, mechanical, and morphological) begin to change from the bulk properties of the adherend to a point in the adhesive where the local properties equal the bulk properties of the adhesive.
In cable construction, the space, valley or void left between or around the cable components.
Voids or valleys between individual strands in a conductor or between insulated conductors in a multiconductor cable. Space between adjacent structures.
A network that provides communications within a building; often referred to as the riser backbone in vertical buildings.
intrinsic viscosity/limiting viscosity number
The limiting value of the reduced viscosity or the inherent viscosity at infinite dilution of the polymer. (IUPAC)
A chain polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are ions. Usually, the growing chain ends are ions. (IUPAC)
The formation of ions. Ions are produced when polar compounds are dissolved in a solvent and when a liquid, gas or solid is caused to lose or gain electrons due to the passage of an electric current.
The potential at which a material ionizes. The potential at which an atom gives up an electron.
Ionization Voltage (Corona Level)
The minimum value of falling rms voltage which sustains electrical discharge within the vacuous or gas filled spaces in the cable construction or insulation.
A polyelectrolyte in which a small but significant proportion of the constitutional units carry charges. (IUPAC)
A worldwide organization that sets standards, specifications and guidelines for PCB design, manufacture and assembly.
A soldering process that uses infrared (IR) light with a wavelength between visible light and microwave radiation as its energy source.
When connector bodies or other components prevent the infrared energy from directly striking some solder joints, causing non-uniform heading.
A combination of metals used in thermocouples, thermocouple wires and thermocouple lead wires. Constantan is an alloy of copper, nickel, manganese and iron. The iron wire is positive, the constantan is negative.
The process of cross linking the insulation. In insulations, the exposure of the material to high energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure by crosslinking.
A macromolecule in which the constitutional units are not all identical. (IUPAC)
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network)
A digital data communications network providing full integration of data, voice and video.
ISO’s rigorous international quality standard covering a company’s R&D, design, production, installation, and service procedures.
ISO Seven Layer Model
A 7 layer hierarchical reference structure developed by the ISO for defining, specifying and relating communications protocol.
International standard ISO/IEC 11801 Information technology — Generic cabling for customer premises specifies general-purpose telecommunication cabling systems (structured cabling) that are suitable for a wide range of applications (analog and ISDN telephony, various data communication standards, building control systems, factory automation). It covers both balanced copper cabling and optical fibre cabling. The standard was designed for use within commercial premises that may consist of either a single building or of multiple buildings on a campus. It was optimized for premises that span up to 3 km, up to 1 km² office space, with between 50 and 50,000 persons, but can also be applied for installations outside this range.
The delivery of fixed length units of information at fixed time intervals relative to a time reference.
This is part of the IEEE 802.9 integrated services LAN standard. It is an extension of 10Base-T which provides for the inclusion of a 6.144 Mbps isochronous (real time and delay sensitive) data service in addition to the 10 Mb/s 10BaseT packet service. It will provide multimedia capability.
A passive fiber optic component that either allows only unidirectional passing of light or that passes only some wavelengths of light. Used in conjunction with lasers or optical amplifiers to reduce or remove backreflections.
A macromolecule comprising only one species of configurational base unit (having chiral or prochiral atoms in the main chain) in a single arrangement with respect to its adjacent constitutional units. Note in an isotactic macromolecule, the configurational repeating unit is identical with the configurational base unit. (IUPAC)
The continuous transmission of meaningless data, usually due to a failure of some sort. The network slows tremendously when burdened with this excess traffic.
A receptacle used with a plug to make electrical contact between communications circuits. Jacks and their associated plugs are used in a variety of connecting hardware applications including adapter, information outlets, and equipment connections. A connecting device into which a plug can be inserted to make circuit connections. The jack may also have contacts which open or close to perform switching functions when the plug is inserted or removed. See also: receptacle.
1)An outer covering, usually non-metallic, mainly used for protection against the environment. 2)The outermost layer of insulating material of a cable or wire. (MIL-STD)
The outer jacket of a cable, which can be made from a variety of materials including but not limited to HDPE, MDPE, PVC, et. al.
A screw attached to one half of a two-piece, multiple-contact connector and used to draw both halves together and to separate them.
A screw attached to one half of a two-piece multiple contact connector used to draw and hold both halves together and to separate them. (MIL-STD)
Japan Digital Cellular (JDC)
A digital cellular standard developed by NTT of Japan, operating in Japan at 800 and 1500 MHz.
Joint conditioning time
The time interval between the removal of the joint from the conditions of heat or pressure, or both, used to accomplish bonding and the attainment of approximately maximum bond strength.
A unit of work or energy equal to 0.7375 foot-pounds. A joule is a measurement of energy. The joule rating on a surge protector indicates the amount of energy that a device is capable of absorbing. In general, the higher the joule rating, the better the unit is able to protect equipment.
An assembly of twisted pairs without connectors used to join telecommunications circuits/links at the cross-connect. In fiber optic cable the cable that has connectors terminated on both ends.
1) A short flat cable interconnecting two wiring boards or devices. 2) A coaxial cable terminated at each end with a coaxial connector and used to interconnect two electronic devices.
A short length of Connectorized copper wire used to route a circuit by linking two cross-connect termination points. PVC insulated connectors twisted together and used for cross-connecting on distributing frames.
A natural fiber of plant base formed into rope-like strands. Used in cables for filling the interstices to give a round cross-section.
Mechanical arrangement of guide pins and sockets, keying plugs, contacts, bosses, slots, keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector housing shell or insert that allows connectors or the same size and typw to be lined up without the danger of making a wrong connection.
Wire, aramid or synthetic mesh that is placed around the cable to be installed, intended to provide positive pulling power. Also known as pulling or mesh grips.
A short pin or other projection which slides in a mating slot or groove to guide two parts being assembled. Generally used in round, shell-enclosed connectors to prevent mating wrong connectors and to assist in polarization.
Connectors in which the plug and adaptor are fixed in alignment to prevent rotation and physical fiber endface damage.
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector.
Keying Plug Contact
A component that is inserted into a cavity of a connector housing or inseert to assure engagment of identically matched components.
The video signal that is used to delete that portion of the background signal that is to be replaced with another video signal.
Pressure sensitive materials, which are usually printed, frequently die-cut, furnished in roll or sheet form with a liner, and intended for use as labels.
Lacing Cord or Twine
Used for tying cable forms, hook-up wires, cable ends, cable bundles and wire harness assemblies.
In cable manufacture to designate the liquid resin or compound applied to a fibrous braid to prevent fraying, wicking, moisture absorption, etc., in the braid.
A finish applied over braided wire or cable for protection against fraying, wicking, moisture, absorption, abrasion, etc.
a chain that comprises constitutional units always joined to each other through four atoms, two on each constitutional unit. (IUPAC)
Laminated Flat Cable
Flat cable consisting of insulated conductors lying parallel, adjacent conductors joined by a web. Application in electronics, telecommunications, computers, etc.
A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together (i.e. aluminum/Mylar®) .
1 ) The process of preparing a laminate. 2) any layer in a laminate. (Compare laminate and wood laminate.)
Flexible stranded paralleled 2-conductor cord, rubber or plastic insulated. Used for speaker cord, fans, lamps, etc., where not subject to hard usage.
LAN (Local Area Network)
A network spanning a limited geographical area, providing data communications between computers and peripherals and switching equipment.
The metal portion of a printed circuit board where the pads on a surface mount component are mated. Also called a footprint or a pad.
Used particularly in connection with the transportation of trailers. One lanemetre is one metre of deck, with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 metres. The capacity of ships built for the transportation of new automobiles is normally expressed by the number of cars carried, or by the area of deckspace, in square metres.
A device attached to certain connectors that permit uncoupling and separation of connector halves by a pull on a wire of cable.
A plug connector which may be separated from a counterpart receptacle by axial pull of an attached lanyard. (MIL-STD)
A joint made by placing one adherend partly over another and bonding together the overlapped portions.
Test to measure resistance to shear stress by bonding the ends of flat bars in an overlapping position.
Sheets of a thin plastic film with grit of varying coarseness (in microns) that are used to polish fiber endfaces.
Large core fiber
An optical fiber with a comparatively large core, usually a step-index type. There is no standard definition of “large,” but they are generally considered as fibers with diameters of 400 microns or more.
Laser (Fiber Optics)
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, a device that generates intensified light, usually very directional and over a narrow range of wavelengths. Often a source of light in fiber optic systems.
A semiconductor diode that emits light in a narrow spectrum; typically over 90% of the light output power concentrated within one angstrom.
Laser-optimized multimode fiber
The ISO/IEC 11801 standard defines two types: the OM3 50/125 fiber, with an effective modal bandwidth of 2,000 MHzkm at 850 nm, and the OM4 50/125 fiber, with 4,700 MHz-km bandwidth.
Attaching a cable to a supporting strand or cable using a steel or dielectric filament around both cable and messenger.
The last mile is the local access network that extends from the CO to the end-user subscriber. Also called the local loop network, it is traditionally copper-based and suffers from the bandwidth limitations of that media.
Delay of a signal in time, which can be caused by transmission, processing, rotation, and propagation delays.
A discoloration in a surface to which tape has been applied, which does not become noticeable until some time after removal, usually after the surface has been exposed to sunlight or heat.
Latex caulks or sealants
A caulking compound or sealant using latex as the base raw material. The most common latex caulks are polyvinyl acetate and vinyl acrylic.
Angle between the propagation direction of the incident light and the optical axis of an optical waveguide.
A known good fiber optic jumper cable attached to a source and calibrated for output power used used as a reference cable for loss testing. This cable must be made of fiber and connectors of a matching type to the cables to be tested.
The length measured along the axis of a wire or cable required for a single strand (in stranded wire) or conductor (in cable) to make one complete turn about the axis of the conductor or cable.
The direction of the progressing spiral twist in a cable while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. The lay direction can be either “left” or “right”.
A term used in cable manufacturing to denote the distance of advance of one element (conductor) of a group of spirally twisted elements, in one turn measured axially.
A step during the optical fiber manufacturing process in which gases are deposited as a wet “soot” upon a quartz rod by flame hydrolysis, ultimately creating a preform for the glass core and cladding of an optical fiber.
The twists in twisted-pair cable. Two single wires are twisted together to form a pair; by varying the length of the twists, or lays, the potential for signal interference between pairs is reduced.
A high density connector for fiber optic applications used in both public and private networks. This high performance connector is available in both singlemode and multimode.
Leaching and Non-Leaching
In a leaching wire the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. A non-leaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking.
The cable that provides the path for RF energy between the antenna and the receiver or transmitter.
Least square approximation (LSA)
A technique used by OTDRs to automatically measure splice attenuation.
1) Strand - Strand in which the cover wires are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch; 2) Rope - Rope in which the strands are laid in a helix having a left-hand pitch
The drawing of filaments or strings when adhesive-bonded substrates are separated. (See also stringiness and webbing.)
The distance of a communications link measured by a tester with a TDR. For TIA/EIA 568-B.2, the Permanent Link is limited to 90 meters of horizontal cabling embedded in the walls and ceiling plenum. Length is one of the ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-B.2 required tests for a Category 5e UTP cable limited to a total distance of 100 meters including the Permanent Link of 90 meters + 10 meters allowance of line cords, patch cords and up to two cross-connects in a link. (also see NOMINAL VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION)
A test performed on a material or configuration to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled, usually accelerated environment.
A situation where a section of tape has pulled away from the surface to which it has been applied.
In the laser and optical communications fields, the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be handled by the basic optical techniques used for the visible spectrum extending from the near ultraviolet region of approximately 0.3 micron, through t
Light (Fiber Optic)
An electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range including infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and X rays, usually the range visible to the human eye, i.e., the energy that enables vision. Light travels in a vacuum at 300,000 km/sec. (186,281 miles per second).
Light Commercial Building
A building or portion thereof that is intended for use with one to four (1-4) non-residential exchange access lines per tenant.
Scattering of light by reflection or transmission. Diffuse reflection results when light strikes an irregular surface such as a frosted window or coated light bulb.
Light Emitting Diode
A semiconductor device that emits incoherent light from a p-n junction (when biased with an electrical current). Commonly called LED.
The fiber optic transmitter in an optical loss test set (OLTS) that uses one or more LEDs or lasers at specified wavelength.Lasers used in communication systems must be stabilized and operating in continuous wave or modulated at 2 kHz.
Light-emitting diode, LED
A semiconductor device that emits light when stimulated by an electrical current. Used in transmitters for multimode fiber links.
A cable core design that allows bundles of optical fibers in a cable core without central strength members.
Electromagnetic waves in the region of optical frequencies. The term "light" was originally restricted to radiation visible to the human eye, with wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm. However, it has become customary to refer to radiation in the speed regi
Limits of Error
The maximum deviation (in degrees or percent) of a thermocouple or thermocouple extension wire from standard emf temperature to be measured.
The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface as with microphone cables (also see Flexibility).
The portion of a data circuit external to the data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) that connects it to an exchange, other DCEs, or connects two exchanges.
The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other, to other conductors, and to ground .
A cord terminating in a plug at one end used to connect equipment or appliances to a power outlet.
A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a transmission line due to there sonance reactance or leakage of the line.
Impedance as measured across the terminals of a transmission line; frequently the characteristic impedance of the line.
Refers to the output voltage level of a piece of electronic equipment. Usually expressed in decibels (e.g., O dBv).
A chain with no branch points intermediate between the boundary units (i.e. the end-groups or other branch points). (IUPAC)
An assembly of telecommunications facilities between two points, not including terminal equipment. The interconnection of two nodes in a network. A link may consist of a data communications circuit or a direct channel (cable) connection. It excludes equipment cables and work area cables. An optical cable with connectors attached to a transmitter and receiver.
Optical loss budget that determines the maximum distance allowable between station. Loss and dispersion factors are included.
Link, fiber optic
A combination of transmitter, receiver and fiber optic cable connecting them capable of transmitting data. May be analog or digital.
Equipment included in a list published by an organization, acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment, and whose listing states either that the equipment or material meets appropri
Wire made from a number of fine, separately-insulated strands specially braided or woven together for reduced skin effect and hence lower resistance to high frequency currents for lower RF losses. The name is Litzendraht wire, German for bundled wire.
A chain polymerization in which the concentration of kinetic-chain carriers, under the appropriate conditions for synthesis, remains constant for a period many times longer than the duration of the synthetic procedure. Often, the absence of chain transfer is implied in the term "living polymerization". (IUPAC)
Load transfer device
Any device embedded in the concrete on both sides of a pavement joint to prevent relative vertical movement of slab edges.
Local access and transport area (LATA)
The geographic area that is the domain of the local exchange carrier. Bell operating companies are generally precluded from carrying traffic across LATA boundaries; this traffic must be handed off to an interexchange carrier.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A data communications network consisting of host computers or other equipment interconnected to terminal devices, such as personal computers, often via twisted-pair or coaxial cables. LAN's allow users to share information and computer resources. Typically, a network is limited to a single premises. 1)A baseband or broadband interactive bi-directional communication system for video or data use on a common cable medium. 2)A communications system whose dimensions typically are less than five kilometers. Transmissions within a local area network generally are digital, carrying data among units.
Local Exchange Carrier
The local wired phone company. The phone carrier providing local transmission services.Defined as either Independent or regional Bell operating company (RBOC).
Local injection and detection (LID)
A type of core alignment fusion splicer that injects light through a macrobend prior to the splice point and detects the light through a macrobend past the splice point. This allows the splicer to achieve maximum core-to-core alignment.
The connection between a customer’s telephone or data equipment and a local exchange company or other telephone service provider.
Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS)
A “wireless cable” service operating in the 28-GHz band. LMDS uses low-power transmitters, configured in a cellular-like arrangement to transmit video to receivers in homes and businesses.
Device for positioning terminals, splices or contacts into crimping dies, positioner, or turret heads. See STOP PLATE. (MIL-STD)
A device either on the contact or in the insert to retain the contact in an insert or body. (MIL-STD). Also called Contact Retainer
Test designed to measure breakaway and prevailing torque of a threaded piece coated with thread locking adhesive.
Log Periodic Antenna
A broadband antenna where the electrical lengths and element spacings are chosen so the bi-directional radiation pattern, impedance and other antenna properties are repeated for several frequencies. The bandwidth is approximately the ratio of the longest dipole element to the shortest.
Long Wire Antenna
Any conductor length in excess of one-half of a wavelength. In a residential television installation, a horizontal run or unshielded lead-in will act as a long-wire antenna and introduce additional signal on top of the regular antenna signal causing ghosts, echoes, and pixelation.
Longitudinal Change (Shrink Tubing)
The change in length of tubing when recovered. Expressed in the percent change from the original length.
Longitudinal Conversion Loss
A ratio expressed in dB, of measured differential voltage relative to the common mode voltage on a conductor pair applied at the same end.
Longitudinal Conversion Transmission Loss
A ratio expressed in dB, of measured differential voltage relative to the common mode voltage on a conductor pair applied at the opposite end.
A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded.
A term generally applied to shrink products denoting the discrete axial length lost through heating in order to obtain the recovered diameter.
An antenna consisting of one or more complete turns of a conductor; usually tuned to resonance by a variable capacitor connected to the terminals of the loop. It measures magnetic-field strengths at frequencies <30 kHz.
The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry.
The initial attraction or grab of an adhesive to a substrate without any external pressure. Measured in pounds per lineal inch (PLI).
Loopback, or loop-back
The routing of electronic signals, digital data streams, or flows of items back to their source without intentional processing or modification. This is primarily a means of testing the transmission or transportation infrastructure. Example applications exist. It may be a communication channel with only one communication endpoint. Any message transmitted by such a channel is immediately and only received by that same channel. In telecommunications, loopback devices perform transmission tests of access lines from the serving switching center, which usually does not require the assistance of personnel at the served terminal. Loop around is a method of testing between stations that are not necessarily adjacent, where in two lines are used, with the test being done at one station and the two lines are interconnected at the distant station. A patch cable may also function as loopback, when applied manually or automatically, remotely or locally, facilitating a loop-back test. Where a system (such as a modem) involves round-trip analog-to-digital processing, a distinction is made between analog loopback, where the analog signal is looped back directly, and digital loopback, where the signal is processed in the digital domain before being re-converted to an analog signal and returned to the source.
Wiring method which avoids tee joints by carrying the conductor or cable to and from the point to be supplied.
Loose Buffer (Fiber Optic)
Also called "loose tube," a protective tube loosely surrounding a cabled fiber, often filled with a gel.
Type of cable design in which coated fibers are encased in buffer tubes offering excellent fiber protection and segregation. Mainly used in outdoor cable types.
Loose tube cable
A type of cable where the internal 250-micron fibers are loose within buffer tubes. Types include stranded, central tube, OPGW, ADSS, and microduct cable. Also known as loose buffer cable.
Loose tube gel filled (LTGF)
A loose tube cable structure with buffer tubes filled with gel to restrict moisture intrusion. Mostly replaced with “dry” techniques, it is still used in areas of extreme low temperatures.
Type of cable design in which coated fibers are encased in buffer tubes offering excellent fiber protection and segregation. Mainly used in outdoor cable types.
One example would be a high order mode from a LED coupled into a multimode fiber. Higher order modes limit the bandwidth of optical fibers.
1) Energy dissipated without performing useful work. 2) A decrease in power suffered by a signal as it is transmitted from one point to another (transmission loss).
The amount of power lost in the link. Often used in terms of the maximum amount of loss that can be tolerated by a given link.
The product of the dissipation and dielectric constant of an insulating material. The loss factor of an insulating material is equal to the product of its dissipation and dielectric constant.
Fiber optic transmission typically occurs at 850, 1300, 1310, 1550, and/or 1625 nm. These “windows” were selected because absorption and scattering losses were lower within them. These wavelengths require light sources and photodetectors that operate efficiently over multimode and single-mode fibers. The newer term “bands” is used to define optical windows that match up with optical amplifiers and their optimum transmission wavelengths. The history of the usage comes from the availability of sources and detectors and their operating characteristics over an optical fiber due to the absorption effects at different wavelengths.
The amount of optical power lost as light is transmitted through fiber, splices, couplers, etc.
Low Frequency (LF)
A band of frequencies extending from 30 kHz to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum, designated by the Federal Communications Commission.
Low Loss Dielectric
An insulating material that has a relatively low dielectric loss, such as polyethylene or Teflon.
Low Noise Cable
Cable configuration specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated triboelectric noise.
Defined by the National Electrical Code as 600 Volts and less. AEIC, ICEA, and UL generally define cables rated up to 2KV as Low Voltage.
Low-smoke zero halogen (LSZH) cable
The standard cable used in Europe in place of plenum or risercable types. Internationally, LSZH cables are used in place of plenum and riser cable jackets. In North America, LSZH cables are used on ships and in tunnels. Also known as zero halogen cable.
Termination, usually crimped or soldered to the conductor, with provision for screwing on to the terminal. Sometimes referred to as Solder Lug.
Automated polishers that are capable of polishing from two to 32 connectors at one time. These polishers can provide uniform low reflection polishes (e.g., PC, SPC, UPC, APC).
In an optical fiber, all macroscopic deviations of the axis from a straight line; distinguished from microbending.
A large-sized molecule; another name for polymer. a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of a number of constitutional units. (IUPAC)
Macromonomeric unit / macromer
The largest constitutional unit contributed by a single macromonomer molecule to the structure of a macromolecule. (IUPAC)
Insulated wire intended for use in windings on motor, transformer, and other coils for electromagnetic devices.
Caused by current frequency. An AC powerline creates a magnetic field around that cable. This magnetic field causes the magnetic noise in neighboring control or instrumentation circuits.
Main chain / backbone
That chain to which all other chains (long or short or both) may be regarded as being pendant; where two or more chains could equally well be considered to be the main chain, that one is selected which leads to the simplest geometrical representation of the molecule. (IUPAC)
Main cross-connect (MC)
A cross connect for first and second level cabling, e.g., from equipment facility connecting to all other locations (ICs and HCs). Usually would consist of a distribution or patch panel.
Main distribution frame (MDF)
A wiring arrangement that connects the telephone lines coming from outside on one side and the internal lines on the other. A main distribution frame may also carry protective devices as well as function as a central testing point. The MDF has been changed to "MC" (main cross-connect) in ANSI/EIA/TIA-568-B.2. The MC is the point at which outside service lines interface to inside service and then to IC’s or to TC’s.
An OTDR with a larger chassis than a mini OTDR. Mainframe OTDRs have CRT displays, internal printers and are larger and heavier than most OTDRs. They were the most common type up till the early 1990s. Mainframes could also be provided with different laser and fiber modules as needed.
Major Trading Area (MTA)
A personal-communications-service area designated by Rand McNally and adopted by the Federal Communications Commission to determine the 51 MTAs in the US.
An encoding method which involves a digital state change (0 to 1 or vice versa) for every bit representation occurring in the middle of the transmitted bit. Useful in local area networks because it is self-clocking. The receiver can develop the data clock from the transmitted data stream. Used in Token Ring and Ethernet systems. Standard Ethernet uses Manchester encoding which results in 10 Mbps throughput at 10 MHz frequency (one-for-one).
A mechanical device of a specific diameter that strips out higher order modes from multimode fibers.
A quantity of finished adhesive or finished adhesive component, processed at one time. (Compare batch.) Discussion—The manufactured unit may be a batch or a part thereof.
MAP 1-step Reference Method
Unidirectional, Single MTJ. DUT end referenced to mORL detector. Used when two ILs are required, one for each end.
MAP 2-step Reference Method
Bi-Directional, Dual MTJ each referenced to mORL but not to each other. Used when MTJ cannot be mated to each other. Gives total IL.
MAP 3-step Reference Method
Uni or Bi-directional, dual MTJ, each referenced to mORL and to each other. Gives total IL.
A style of hardware with a drilled eye and a drilled shank into which wire rope is inserted for swaging
A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the jacket in a cable, imprinted with manufacturer's name and/or specification to which the cable is made.
A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strands of an insulated conductor which identifies the cable manufacturer. It may also denote a temperature rating or the specification to which the cable is made.
A peelable, water soluble, or solvent soluble compound that is used to prevent solder from filling in areas that need to be solder free.
Master Antenna Television (MATV)
A combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas normally on a single building.
Meltable coating used on the inside of some shrink products which, when heated, flows to encapsulate the interstitial air voids.
Matched-clad optical fiber
Optical fiber with a cladding of consistent refractive index up to the core boundary, resulting in the desired single-mode step-index profile. Used where fibers of different periods are spliced together as they produce lower attenuation readings and are less susceptible to bending losses.
Dispersion caused by differential delay of various wavelengths of light in a waveguide material.
Material safety data sheet (MSDS)
Technical bulletin required by OSHA detailing information about the physical or health hazards of a chemical or mixture.
Material Scattering Loss
Loss due to fluctuations in the refractive index and to inhomogeneities in material composition and temperature.
A connector on the test fixturing that connects, or mates, to a connector on the device-under-test.
1) Shared boundary defined by common physical interconnection characteristics (often including a connector), signal characteristics and meanings of interchanged signals. 2) A device or equipment making inter-operation of two systems possible; for example, a hardware component or common storage register. 3) The two surfaces on the contact side of a mating connector or plug-in component (e.g. relay) and receptacle, which face each other when mated. (MIL-STD)Also called Interface.
Mating Face Seal
A seal which prevents the passage of moisture or gases into or out of the connecting interface of two connectors in mated condition.
The part of an adhesive which surrounds or engulfs embedded filler or reinforcing particles and filaments.
The temperature, as a function of time and bonding condition, that produces desired characteristics in bonded components. Discussion—The term is specific for ceramic adhesives.
Mean time between failure (MTBF)
Developed by the military to estimate maintenance or replacement times for various pieces of high-end equipment, MTBF is based upon statistical evidence derived from in use testing under extreme conditions (simulated or actual environment). Testing is performed by the manufacturer of the equipment or an independent test facility.
A fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. Index matching material may be applied between the two fiber ends. A semi-permanent connection between two fibers, made with an alignment device and refractive index matching fluid or adhesive.
A small patch panel located at work areas allowing quick termination of voice, video, and data connectors.
Medium-density polyethylene (MDPE)
A flexible, environmentally-stable thermoplastic used in outside cable jacketing.
A group of insulated wires to be cabled with other stranded groups into multiple-membered cable.
A hot press design which permits laminates or veneer to be glued to a surface that is not flat, by using a rubber membrane that is inflated with a hot fluid.
A process in which an adherend is brought in intimate contact with a substrate to form an assembly by application of overpressure to a flexible film.
An organic compound containing –SH groups; a main curing agent for polysulfide adhesives and sealants.
Enables a single communications channel to be used simultaneously for more than one node.
The linear supporting member, usually a high strength steel wire, used as the supporting element of a suspended aerial cable. The messenger may be an integral part of the cable, or on the exterior.
Galvanized wire ranging from 1/4” to 9/16” which is placed between poles and which standard cable types are lashed.
Thin, flexible sheets of metal (e.g. aluminum and lead) used as tape backings because of inherent properties such as weather-resistance, reflectivity, etc.
Metal To Metal Bottoming
In cylindrical connectors, the situation in which the shell surface of the receptacle bottoms (contacts) the inside rear portion of the mating plug.
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
An interconnected data transmission system connecting users and LANs in a localized geographical area such as a city.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
An MSA denotes one of the 306 largest urban population markets as defined by Rand McNally and designated by the Federal Communications Commission as a guide to determine coverage areas for cellular networks. Two cellular operators are licensed in each MSA.
An electrical unit of conductivity, being the conductivity of a body with the resistance of one ohm.
MHV (Miniature High Voltage)
Coaxial connector with bayonet coupling mechanism. Working voltage 2.2 kV DC.
One millionth of a farad. This is the common unit for designating capacitance in electronics and communications.
Curvatures of the fiber which involve axial displacements a few micrometers and spatial wavelengths of a few millimeters. Microbends cause loss of light and consequently increase the attenuation of the fiber. An effect where small stresses or flaws create attenuation. Mostly an extrinsic effect caused by tie wraps and point deformations onto the fiber that allow light to escape. Intrinsic sources are flaws or defects in the core/cladding boundary created during the manufacturing process.
Loss due to small geometrical irregularities along the core-clad interface of the fiber.
A small cell site in a personal-communications-services network. Personal-communications-services networks use many microcells.
Small HDPE ducts up to 16 mm in diameter that can be installed in empty or partially filled ducts to provide space for microduct fiber optic cables.
Microduct cables are designed for high-density fiber counts in a small optical cable, normally between 5-16 mm. Designed for blowing into microducts.
One millionth of a meter or a micron. Conventional unit of measurement for optical fibers.
Microscope, fiber optic inspection
A microscope used to inspect the end surface of a connector for flaws or contamination or a fiber for cleave quality.
A type of transmission line configuration which consists of a conductor over a parallel ground plane and separated by a dielectric.
A short (usually less than 30 cm.) electrical wave. RF signals between 890-MHz and 20-GHz. Point-to-point microwave transmission is commonly used as a substitute for copper or fiber cable.
Opening a cable in the middle of a span to access the fibers. Also known as an express entry.
Referring to an inlet or outlet with a shallow depth. Commonly mounted in areas where space is limited.
1) Military specification for wire; 2) 0.001" (1/1000 inch) one 1000th of an inch; 3) A unit used in measuring diameter of wire or thickness of an insulation over a conductor.
United States Defense Standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", or "MIL-SPEC". A MIL-SPEC for quality standards for electronic parts is MIL-STD-202.
A specification governing the manufacture of specialty wire ropes and aircraft cables required in various military and non-military applications. See Cable Specifications
An abbreviation for minimum calculated effective modal bandwidth, minEMBc is used to calculate the bandwidth of multimode fiber at Gigabit data rates.
Cable and thermocouple wire consisting of one or more conductors surrounded by magnesium oxide insulation and enclosed in a liquid- and gas-tight metallic sheathing.
Mini OTDRs emerged in the 1990s as a low-cost, lightweight version of the mainframe OTDR. Features include AC/DC power, LCD display, and various modules for specific fiber types and corresponding wavelengths. Usually without a printer, they can store traces on disk, memory card, or their internal hard disk.
A keyed connector with a 2.5-mm ferrule and bayonet coupling mechanism. It was the predecessor to the ST connector.
Minimum Bending Radius
Ratio of the diameter of the pulley used in an application (D) to the diameter of the wire rope (d)
Minimum Dynamic Bending Radius
The minimum permissible radius for flexible applications of the cable.
Minimum Static Bending Radius
The minimum permissible radium for fixed installation of the cable. This radium is used I climatic tests.
A flame retardant cable especially constructed to withstand long time immersion or exposure to moisture for underground use in the environment of a mine or tunnel.
A termination having a different impedance from that for which a circuit or cable is designed.
Mismatch (Connector Impedance or Line Impedance)
1) The condition in which the impedance of a source does not match or equal the impedance of the connected load. This reduces power transfer by causing reflection. 2) A termination having a different impedance than that for which a circuit or cable is designed.
Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO)
The central computer that connects a cellular-phone call to the public telephone network. The MTSO controls the entire system’s operations, including monitoring calls, billing, and handoffs.
Pulse spreading due to multiple light rays traveling different distances and speeds through an optical fiber.
Mode (Fiber Optic)
One of the components of a general configuration of a propagating wave front. Mode is characterized by a particular geometrical pattern and propagation constant.
Mode conditioning patchcord (MCPC)
Designed for GbE and Fibre Channel links using legacy multimode fibers and VCSEL light sources operating at 850 nm. Normally it is a pair of duplex jumpers that are installed between the transmission equipment at each end of the fiber link. The transmit side has a short single-mode section “offset” fusion spliced to MMF so the light is coupled outside of the center core defect of the MMF. The receiver portion is entirely multimode.
In an optical fiber, the exchange of power among modes. The exchange of power may reach statistical equilibrium length.
Mode Field Diameter (MFD)
The diameter of optical energy in a singlemode fiber. Because the MFD is greater than the core diameter, MFD replaces core diameter as a practical parameter.
A device that mixes optical power in fiber to achieve equal power distribution in all modes. Mode stripper: A device that removes light in the cladding of an optical fiber.
Any chemically inert ingredient added to an adhesive formulation that changes its properties.
A series of connectors designed for ease of use and flexibility. They are characterized by locking plastic tabs on the bottom and typically appear in three configurations: RJ-11 (4-conductor), RJ-12 (6-conductor) and RJ-45 (8-conductor).
A laser module that allows users to control output power by varying a control voltage, which turns the laser on and off.
In fiber optics, the manner in which information is coded into light for transmission through a fiber.
A waveguide device used externally to the laser to electrooptically change the refractive index of the waveguide in response to an applied electric field. The phase changes induced can result in amplitude modulation of light at the output port.
Slope of the line connecting the origin and a given point of the stress-strain curve.
Slope of the line touching (tangent to) the stress-strain curve at a given point on the curve.
The amount of moisture , in percentage, that a material will absorb under specified conditions.
Percent moisture content is equal to the weight of water divided by the weight of bone-dry wood x 100.
The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.
Mold, Potting, Electrical, Connector
An item, solid or split, designed to be used as a hollow form into which potting compound is injected and allowed to cure or set to seal the back of an electrical connector. The potting may eliminate the need for a backshell on the connector. The form may or may not be removable after potting.
Consisting of a single wavelength. In practice, radiation is never perfectly monochromatic but, at best, displays a narrow band of wavelengths.
A television signal that does not contain any color information, a "black and white" signal.
Monomeric unit / mer
The largest constitutional unit contributed by a single monomer molecule to the structure of a macromolecule or oligomer molecule. (IUPAC)
Galvanized wire rope, usually 6x12, 6x24 or spring lay construction, for holding ships to dock
A printed circuit board used for interconnecting arrays of plug-in electronic modules or sub-assemblies.
Motor Lead Wire
Wire which connects to the usually fragile and easily damaged magnet wire found in coils, transformers, and stator or field windings. General requirements are abrasion resistance, toughness, flexibility, dielectric strength, thermal resistance and low pe
Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG)
Various standards, established by the, that define the amount of compression, and thereby the quality, of the resultant video information file.
Master Test Jumper, launch and receive test cables, high quality Jumpers used to connect between the MAP/PCT instrument and the DUT.
MT-RJ connector. MT-RJ connector. A fiber-optic cable connector that is very popular for small form factor devices due to its small size. Housing two fibers and mating together with locating pins on the plug, the MT-RJ comes from the MT connector, which can contain up to 12 fibers.
MU Connector is a small form factor SC that looks like a miniature SC with a 1.25 mm ferrule. It is a popular connector type in Japan.
An adhesive prepared from a gum and water. Also in a more general sense, a liquid adhesive which has a low order of bonding strength.
External structural member in a curtain wall building, usually vertical. May be placed between two opaque panels, between two window frames, or between a panel and a window frame.
A cable consisting of two or more conductors, either cabled or laid in a flat parallel construction, with or without a common overall covering.
A chain that comprises units always joined to each other through more than four atoms, more than two on each constitutional unit. (IUPAC)
Multifiber push-on connector (MPO)
A high-density connector that can terminate up to 24 singlemode or 72 multimode fibers in a single termination.
Multilongitudinal mode (MLM) laser
A laser, usually Fabry-Perot, that has a measured spectral width specified by the maximum root mean square of the spectral distribution (side modes), limited to no more than 20 dB down from the peak mode.
A means of conveying information with components in different media such as voice, music, text, graphics, image and video.
A single communication cable used for the transmission of audio, data and video signals.
An optical waveguide in which light travels in several modes. Typical core and cladding sizes are 62.5 and 125 µm, respectively.
Multimode Optical Fiber
An optical fiber that will allow many bound modes to propagate. The fiber may be either a graded-index or step-index fiber. See also: Optical Fiber Cable.
A method of introducing a light pulse with multiple light rays (modes) into an optical fiber. Multimode is typically used for short-haul applications of less than 2 KM using relatively inexpensive light sources usually operating at a 850 or 1300 nanometer wavelength. Gigabit Ethernet uses an 850 VCSEL laser while most other applications use Light Emitting Diode (LED) light sources.
Multiple Conductor Cable
A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used.
Multiple Conductor Concentric Cable
An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another.
A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used.
Film adhesive, usually supported, with a different adhesive composition on each side.
A device which combines two or more separate signals for transmission through a single fiber. Optical multiplexer combines signals at different wavelengths. Electronic multiplexer combines TDM or FDM signals electronically before they are converted into optical form.
Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
An overall data-carrying protocol that encompasses circuit based and packet-switching services such as ATM, SONET, and Ethernet, as well as network digital formats such as VoIP and IPTV.
Multitenant data center (MTDC)
A facility that provides Internet infrastructure services, such as electrical power, fire suppression, security, cooling, and network access, usually over optical fiber. Some firms lease datacenter space to other providers or individual enterprises. Colocation data centers sell space on the basis of racks, cabinets, or cages.
Multiuser telecommunications outlet assembly (MUTOA)
Used in work areas of premises networks to allow multiple terminations.
Mutual Capacitance (Cm)
1) Capacitance between two conductors when all other conductors are connected together to shield and ground. 2) Capacitance between two conductors when all other conductors including ground are connected together and then regarded as an ignored ground.
The ratio of voltage induced in one conductor to the time rate of current change in the separate conductor causing this induction.
Coaxial connector with screw type coupling mechanism. Available in 50 ohm and 75 ohm version. Frequency range DC - 18 GHz (50 ohm) and DC-1 GHz (75 ohm), respectively.
National Electrical Code® (NEC)
A U.S. consensus standard published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and incorporated in OSHA regulations. (The Canadian Counterpart is the CE Code.)
National Electrical Code® Article 725
The NEC Article which covers remote control signal and communication power limited circuits that are not an integral part of the device or appliance.
National Electrical Code® Article 760
The NEC Article which covers the fire and burglar alarms installation of wire and equipment operating at 600 Volts or less.
National Electrical Code® Article 800
The NEC Article which covers telephone, telegraph as well as outside wiring for fireand burglar alarms.
National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)
This outside plant code contains basic safety provisions that cover supply, communication lines, equipment, and work practices of personnel employed by utilities.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
A U.S. government organization that develops standards in support of industry, commerce, scientific institutions, and all branches of government. The calibration of test equipment is traceable to NIST equipment.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
An agency of the US Commerce Department, it is the President’s adviser on communications policy and is responsible for administering all federal government use of the radio spectrum, including military communications.
National Television Standards Committee (NTSC)
Committee that defines specifications and methods for displaying video information on a standard television.
Near End Crosstalk (NEXT)
Refers to the undesired coupling of signals from the transmit pair onto the receive pair on the same (=near) end. NEXT isolation is expressed in dB and is a measure of how well the pairs in a cable are isolated from each other.
The part of the infrared electromagnetic spectrum near visible wavelengths, in the range of 700 to 1500/2000 nm.
NEAR-END CROSSTALK (NEXT)
The coupling of power from the transmitted signal pair to an adjacent pair at the same transmitting end of the LAN cable.
NEC Type CL2
A Class 2 power-limited type cable for general use applications within a building under NEC Article 725, this type design is "Listed" by UL. These cables meet a 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type CL2P
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for use in plenums in accordance with NEC Article 725. The cable meets the requirements of UL 910 the Steiner Tunnel test which classifies fire and smoke characteristics. The cable is "Listed" by UL.
NEC Type CL2R
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for use in riser shafts in accordance with NEC Article 725. These cables meet the UL 1666 flame test and are "Listed" by UL.
NEC Type CL2X
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for restricted applications (Iess than 0.25" in diameter in residences, exposed lengths less than 10f t.) or else in raceways under NEC Article 725. These cables meet a VW-1 flame test and a re Listed by UL.
NEC Type CM
A general application communications cable, Listed by UL, for use within buildings under NEC Article 800. It meets the requirements of the 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type FPL
A general application fire p rotection cable for use within buildings in accordance with NEC Article 760. These cables are Listed by UL and meet the 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type MP
A general use, multipurpose cable which may be employed interchangeably in either a communications (Article 800), power-limited (Article 725) or fire protective (Article 760) application.
Necking or narrowing produces a high loss splice. Also caused by bad cleaves which leave a void between the fiber ends resulting in a narrow section during fusion.
A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil, chemicals and flame. Also called polychloroprene.
An electrical unit similar to decibel, used to express the ratio between two amount of power existing at two distinct points. 1 Neper = 8.686 decibels.
1) Series of points connected by communications channels; 2) Network of telephone lines normally used for dialed telephone calls; 3) Network of communications channels connected to the use of one customer. For purposes of data communications applications
Network access point (NAP)
A major Internet connection point that allows organizations to interconnect and exchange information and traffic to flow from freely from ISP to ISP.
A device such as an Ethernet card that enables a computer to be attached to a network.
Network Communications Cable (NCC)
Network Communications Cable, often called NCC, is generally used in the Riser Backbone Subsystem in locations not involving plenums. The cable consists of 24-AWG, annealed-copper conductors insulted with color-coded polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in twisted pairs, encased in an outer PVC jacket whose frictional properties permit it to be pulled in conduit without the aid of lubricants. This type of cabling used to be referred to as Direct Inside Wire (DIW).
Network equipment building system (NEBS)
A requirement for central office equipment in the North American Public Switched Telephone Network. Originally developed by Bell Labs (now Telcordia) in the 1970s and released as a public document in 1985.
The point of interconnection between building communications wiring and outside communications lines (telephone company facilities).
Network Interface Cards (NICs)
The piece of equipment that is installed into the expansion port of a personal computer and allows communication between the PC and the network.
The network layer is layer 3 of the OSI model. This layer sets up an end-to-end connection across a network determining which permutation of individual links to be used. Thus the network layer performs overall routing functions.
Network Operating System
NOS. The software component of a network. The NOS contains all instructions pertinent to data transfer, file manipulation and services and interfacing routines.
Network Operations Center (NOC)
The group responsible for the day-to-day care and feeding of a network. Also called a network control center (NCC).
New Bedford, MA
City in Massachusetts in North America that is home to Fiber Optic Center's headquarters. New Bedford was known in the 19th Century as “the city that lit the world”, because as the active seaport which was home to the worldwide whaling industry, its products were used to light the lamps and later lighthouses throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. Whaleships were at sea for 3 or more years at a time in every direction, including both poles and everywhere in between. On returning back to the home port, goods gathered overseas were shared with others, as were stories of people, customs and cultures. Immigrants came from far places to man the ships, and many stayed and settled when their sailing days ended.
The property of a liquid in which its viscosity is constant over a stated range of strain rates.
A pressure system designed to apply a large amount of pressure for an instant. This system is frequently used for hot melt, fast-set adhesives, or contact cements.
A connection point into a network. The node may perform several functions (i.e., file server, workstation, print server, bridge, etc.).
In a cable or circuit, any extraneous signal which tends to interfere with the signal normally present in or passing through the system.
A descriptor applied to a dimension representing the center of the range of tolerance or a value if no tolerance is applied.
The stress at a point calculated on the net cross section by simple elastic theory without taking into account the effect on the stress produced by discontinuities such as holes, grooves, fillets, or any combination of them.
Nominal Velocity of Propagation
"NVP" is the relative speed a signal travels on a conductor that is proportionate to the speed of light in a vacuum. Length measurements are determined by sending a signal down a line and measuring the reflected signal that comes back and factoring in the amount of time that it took to make the return trip. (also see c and LENGTH)
Type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoids contaminating and destroying the dielectric.
An adjective describing a chain macromolecule that behaves in a hydrodynamic field as though the solvent within the domain of the macromolecule were virtually immobilized with respect to the macromolecule. (IUPAC)
The property of a liquid in which its viscosity is not constant over a stated range of strain rates.
A chassis mounted device that provides a connection between a rear mounted receptacle and a front mounted receptacle.
Non-Rotating Wire Ropes
18x7 wire rope consisting of a 6x7 left lay Lang lay inner rope covered by twelve 7-wire strands right lay regular lay - also 19x7’s
Non-Wireline Cellular Company
The Federal Communications Commission licensed two cellular systems in each market—one for the local telephone company and the second, the “A” carrier, for other applicants. The distinction between A and B (the wireline cellular carrier) was meaningful only during the Federal Communications Commission’s licensing process. Once a system is constructed, it can be sold to anyone. Thus, in some markets today, the A and B sys