Contact Us (800) IS-FIBER  • 508-992-6464 
sales inquiries sales@focenter.com • all other inquiries: FiberOpticCenter@focenter.com

Content Search
Generic filters
Filter by Folders
Careers
Job Posting/Job Descriptions
Product Catalog Page
Filter by Categories
CLEAVE: Blog Articles
CLEAVE: Industry News
CLEAVE: White Paper
CLEANING: Industry News
CLEAVE: Video
CLEANING: News
CLEANING: White Paper
CLEAVE: Ask FOC
CLEANING: Video
BEYOND FIBER: Video
CABLE PREP: Tips
CABLE PREP: White Paper
CLEANING: Blog Articles
CLEANING: Ask FOC
CABLE PREP: Ask FOC
CABLE PREP: Industry News
CABLE PREP: Blog Articles
BEYOND FIBER: White Paper
BEYOND FIBER: Ask FOC
BEYOND FIBER: Blog Articles
BEYOND FIBER: Industry News
BEYOND FIBER: News
BEYOND FIBER: Tips
CABLE PREP: News
CABLE PREP: Video
CLEANING: Tips
CLEAVE: News
CLEAVE: Tips

Don’t miss the latest industry best practices, standards, and process tips – Subscribe Now to the FOC newsletter

Fiber Optic Center Glossary

View: Glossary, Acronyms, Military Specifications for Connectors

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
There are currently 3633 names in this directory
1-Part, AL-12xx Series
ÅngströmLink® non-curing gels. Also known as thixotropic gels, or greases, these are 1-part materials that flow when pressure is applied, and remain in place when the force is removed (like toothpaste). These materials are generally used to displace the air gap between two optical elements and do not form a permanent bond between the two elements; generally need other mechanical fastening to insure structural integrity of the joint. Joints interconnected in this way are easily unmade and remade.

10 Gigabit Ethernet
The IEEE has initiated work on the specification of 10 Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber cabling. The standard is planned for completion in 2001 or early 2002, with specifications for multimode and singlemode fiber.

A Carrier
The non-wireline cellular company which operates in radio frequencies from 824 to 849 MHz.

A-Block Carrier
30-MHz personal-communications-services provider serving a major trading area in the frequency block of 1850 to 1865 MHz paired with 1930 to 1945 MHz.

A-stage
An early stage in the preparation of certain thermosetting resins, in which the material is still soluble in certain liquids, and fusible.

A.C. Resistance
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance.

Abhesive
A material which is adhesive resistant and applicable as a non-sticking surface coating; release agent.

Abrasion
Surface wear on the wires of a wire rope

Abrasion Resistance
A measure of ability of a wire, wire covering or material to resist surface wear or damage by mechanical means.

Absorption
That portion of fiber optic attenuation resulting of conversion of optical power to heat.

AC Alternating Current (AC)
Current in which the charge-flow periodically reverses.

AC Resistance
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance .

Accelerated Aging
A test in which voltage, temperature, etc., are increased above normal operating values to obtain observable deterioration in a relatively short period of time. The plotted results give expected service life under normal conditions.

Accelerated weathering
A set of laboratory conditions to simulate in a short time the effects of natural weathering. Most adhesives are generally not subjected to the conditions that are normally considered under weathering tests.

Acceleration Stress
Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to increasing the velocity of the load

Accelerator
A chemical additive which hastens a chemical reaction under specific conditions.

Acceptance Angle
The half-angle of the cone within which all incident light is totally internally reflected by the fiber core. For graded index fibers, acceptance angle is a function of position on the entrance face of the core.

Acceptance Test
Made to demonstrate the degree of compliance with specified requirements.

Access Method
In a data processing system, any of the techniques available to end users for movement of data between main storage and an input/output device or channel. These techniques are most commonly a part of the operating system.

Accessories
Mechanical devices such as back-shells, cable clamps or strain reliefs which are attached to connectors to make up the total connector assembly.

Accordian
(1) A retractile cable with a series of equally-spaced transverse folds. (2) A connector contact with a Z shaped flat spring to permit high deflection without overstress.

Acetate (cellulose acetate)
A transparent film which is used for various reasons in tape backings; the primary characteristic is that of being more moisture resistant than cellophane.

Acetone
A very volatile and flammable solvent that is particularly useful for cleaning metal substrates.

Acrylic
A synthetic polymer with excellent aging characteristics that can be used as either a single component adhesive, coating or saturant, depending upon composition.

Activator
A chemical additive used to initiate the chemical reaction in a specific chemical mixture .

Active Current
In an alternating current, a component in phase with the voltage. The working component as distinguished from the idle or wattless component.

Active device
An active device is a device that requires electrical power. One type is those that convert signals between electrical and optical formats such as lasers, LEDs, and photodiodes. Active devices also can manipulate light, such as optical amplifiers and modulators.

Active optical cable (AOC)
A fiber optic cable that has been preterminated with an external electrical endface, thereby removing the termination process. The electrical endfaces can be manufactured with most module formats. The most common module formats are the SFP and HDMI interfaces, but DVI, VGA, SFP+, and QSFP+ interfaces also can be provided.

Active Pressure
In an AC circuit, the pressure which produces a current, as distinguished from the voltage impressed upon the circuit.

Active Tag
An RF identification transponder that requires batteries for operation.

Ad Hoc Cabling
Cabling scheme where different types of cabling components from different vendors are linked together to form a cabling system.

Adapter
A device that enables any or all of the following a) different sizes or types of plugs to mate with one another or to fit into a telecommunications outlet/connector; b) the rearrangement of leads; c) large cables with numerous wires to fan out into smalle

Adapter-Fiber
A mechanical media termination device designed to align and join fiber optic connectors. Often referred to as a coupling, bulkhead, or interconnect sleeve.

Add/drop multiplexer (ADM)
A mid-span electronic element that provides optoelectric/electro-optic conversion to add, drop, or multiplex photonic signals.

Addition polymerization
1) A chemical reaction in which simple molecules are linked together to form long chain molecules; 2) A chain reaction in which monomers with carbon-carbon double bonds are converted to polymers.

Adhere
To cause two surfaces to be held together by adhesion.

Adherend
A body which is held to another body by an adhesive.

Adhesion
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may be chemical or mechanical in nature .

Adhesion (adhesive) failure
Rupture of an adhesive bond in which the separation appears visually to be at the adhesive/adherend interface.

Adhesion build-up
An increase in the peel adhesion value of a pressure-sensitive tape after it has been allowed to dwell on the applied surface.

Adhesion promoter
A substance used to improve bonding of the adhesive to the substrate. (Compare coupling agent and primer.) Discussion—The adhesion promoter may be added to an adhesive formulation or applied to the substrate.

Adhesion to backing
The bond produced by contact between a pressure-sensitive adhesive and the tape backing when one piece is applied to the back of another piece of the same tape.

Adhesion, mechanical
Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.

Adhesion, specific
Adhesion between surfaces that are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.

Adhesive
Substance for bonding, sticking or holding things together.

Adhesive Bonded
Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables.

Adhesive deposit
A pressure-sensitive adhesive which is pulled away from the tape and remains on the surface to which the tape was applied.

Adhesive dispersion
A two-phase system in which one phase is suspended in a liquid.

Adhesive failure
Type of failure characterized by pulling the adhesive loose from the substrate.

Adhesive joint
Location at which two adherends are held together with a layer of adhesive. (See also bond )

Adhesive Liner
Lining the melts and flows inside a sleeve filling any voids in between the substrate and the sleeve

Adhesive transfer
The transfer of adhesive from its normal position on the tape to the surface to which the tape was attached, either during unwind or removal.

Adhesive-joint failure
The locus of fracture occurring in an adhesively-bonded joint resulting in a loss of load-carrying capability.

Adhesive, Anaerobic
An adhesive which only cures when air is excluded.

Adhesive, Assembly
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together such as the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.

Adhesive, Cold-setting
An adhesive that sets at temperature below 68°F (20°C).

Adhesive, Contact
An adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive.

Adhesive, Cyanoacrylate
Group of adhesives which show "instant" cure properties and bond to a wide variety of substrates. Cure is by contact with alkaline materials. Weakly alkaline materials, such as water, cause the cure to start.

Adhesive, Dispersion
A two phase system in which one phase is suspended in a liquid.

Adhesive, Foamed
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.

Adhesive, Foamed – An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.

Adhesive, Heat activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly.

Adhesive, Hot melt
An adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.

Adhesive, Hot-setting
An adhesive that requires a temperature at or above 100°C (212°F) to set.

Adhesive, Intermediate temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 31°-99°C (87°-211°F).

Adhesive, Pressure sensitive
A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains permanently tacky. Such a material will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.

Adhesive, Room temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 20°-30°C (68°-86°F).

Adhesive, Separate application
A term used to describe an adhesive consisting of two parts, one part being applied to one substrate and the other part to the other substrate and the two brought together to form a joint.

Adhesive, solvent
An adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle.

Adhesive, solvent activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.

Adjacent Conductor
Any conductor next to another conductor either in the same multi-conductor cable layer or in adjacent layers.

Administration
The method for labeling, identification, documentation and usage needed to implement moves, additions and changes of the telecommunications infrastructure.

Administration Point
A location at which communications circuits are administered; that is, rearranged or rerouted by means of cross connections, interconnection, or information outlets.

Administration Subsystem
The part of a premises distribution system that includes the distribution hardware components where you can add or rearrange circuits. These components include cross connects, interconnects, information outlets, and their associated patch cords and plugs. Also called "administration points". See also Cross Connect and Information Outlets (IO).

Admittance
The measure of the ease with which an alternating current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.

Adsorption
The action of a body in condensing and holding gases and other materials at its surface.

Advanced Intelligent Networks (AIN)
Systems that allow a wireless user to make and receive phone calls while roaming in areas outside the user’s “home” network.

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
The US standard for analog cellular telephones.

AEIC
Association of Edison Illuminating Companies

Aeolian vibration
Wind-induced vibration, usually high frequency, which causes oscillation of cable.

Aerial
A type of installation in which the cable is connected to poles or towers by means of clamps or other attachment hardware.

Aerial Cable
A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure

Aging
The progressive change in the chemical and physical properties of a sealant or adhesive.

Aging Stability Test
The test used to determine the flexibility of a cable after temperature cycling.

Aging, Heat
Artificial "aging" of adhesive by exposing to elevated temperatures for long periods.

Air blown fiber (ABF)
An installation technique developed by British Telecom where micro ducts or “pipe cables” are installed, and then optical fibers or fiber bundles are blown into the cable with spans reaching 10,000 feet.

Air Core
A telephone outside plant cable construction for aerial and duct installation in which the insulated conductors in the cable core are surrounded by air.

Air Core Cable
A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier.

Air handling plenum
A space within a building that is designed for the movement of environmental air, e.g., a space above a suspended ceiling or below an access floor.

Air polish
The first polish of a ferrule or termini after the fiber has been cleaved. The lapping film is passed over the connector endface in the air to polish the fiber stub just above the ferrule endface.

Air Spaced Coaxial Cable
One in which air is essentially the dielectric material. A spirally wound synthetic filament, beads, or braided filaments may be used to center the conductor.

Air-Handling Plenum
A designated area, closed or open, used for environmental air.

Airborne
Denotes applications peculiar to aircraft and missiles or other systems designed for operation primarily within the earth's atmosphere. (MIL-STD)

Aircraft Cables
Strands, cords and wire ropes made of special strength wire primarily for aircraft controls and miscellaneous uses of Aircraft Industry

Airtime
Time spent talking on a cellular phone. This is usually billed to the subscriber on a per-minute basis.

Alignment sleeve
An appliance for mating and holding two connector ferrules in alignment. Also known as a C-clip.

Aliphatic resin glue
Yellow glues which provide more grab for shorter clamp times, and offer better water resistance and heat resistance than traditional white glues.

All-dielectric
No metal elements.

All-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS)
A loose tube cable structure without any metallic elements.

All-optical network (AON)
A network that uses only optical components to produce, direct, condition, control, and connect optical signals.

All-Rubber Cable
A cable in which all interstices between conductors are filled with rubber compound.

Alligator Clip
A mechanical device shaped like alligator jaws used as a temporary connection on the sod of interconnections wire.

Alligatoring
Cracking of a surface into segments so that it resembles the hide of an alligator.

Allocation
The designation of a band of frequencies for a specific radio service or services. The Federal Communications Commission and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration are responsible for frequency allocations in the US.

Alloy
A mixture of two or more metals combined to achieve properties, such as a lower melting point or greater strength, that the individual metals do not possess.

Alphanumeric
A message on a digital output display containing letters, “alphas”, and numbers, “numerics”.

ALS
A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube.

Alternate Lay
Lay of a wire rope in which the strands are alternately regular and lang lay

Alternate Position
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying.

Alternating Copolymer
A copolymer consisting of macromolecules comprising two species of monomeric units in alternating sequence. (IUPAC)

Alternating Copolymerization
A copolymerization in which an alternating copolymer is formed. (IUPAC)

Alternating Current (AC)
Electric current that continually reverses its direction. It is expressed in cycles per second (hertz or Hz).

Alternating Voltage
The voltage developed a cross a resistance or impedance through which alternating current is flowing.

Aluminum Conductor
An aluminum wire or group of wires not suitably insulated to carry electrical current.

Aluminum Oxide Film (ÅngströmLap ®)
When diamond film is not needed, like in many multimode applications, aluminum oxide is recommended. Some

Aluminum-Steel Conductor
A composite conductor made up of a combination of aluminum and steel wires.

Ambient
The atmospheric conditions surrounding a given item. Normally in terms of factors which influence or modify, such as temperature, humidity, etc.

Ambient Conditions
Temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. which exist in the area surrounding the bond, normally room temperature, atmospheric pressure, daylight, etc.

Ambient Temperature
The temperature of the medium surrounding an object. Generally a lower temperature than the temperature at which the cable is operating.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The official American standards body through which standards are published and various other standards committees are accredited.

American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
An organization that tests materials and attempts to set standards on various materials for industry.

American Wire Gauge (AWG)
A standard system for measuring wire gauge primarily used in the United States.

Amorphous
Non-crystalline polymer or non-crystalline areas in a polymer.

Ampacity
The maximum current an insulated wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding either the insulation or jacket material limitations. (Same as Current Carrying Capacity.)

Amperage
Amps/Amperes/Ampacity/Rated Amperage -measurement of the flow rate of electricity. If you think in terms of water through a hose, amperage would be a measure of water volume flowing through the hose.

Ampere
A measurement of electrical current or amount of electric charge per second in a circuit. Frequently shortened to Amp. Its symbol is the letter A but in formulas it is sometimes expressed as the letter I._

Ampere's Law
The magnetic intensity at any point near a current carrying conductor can be compute on the assumption that each infinitesimal length of the conductor produces at the point of an infinitesimal magnetic density. The resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum of the contributions of all the elements of the conductor.

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)
The ratio of the optical power at the center of the laser line width to the optical power at a given distance, as measured using an optical spectrum analyzer with a set resolution bandwidth.

Amplitude
Height of a waveform that represents signal strength.

Anaerobic
In adhesives, a bonding method that uses its own chemical reaction to complete the adhesion.

Anaerobic adhesive
An adhesive that is kept in the uncured state by oxygen, as in air, and that cures in the absence of oxygen when exposed to metal ions, especially copper or iron.

Analog
The traditional method of transmitting voice signals where the radio wave is based on electrical impulses which occur when speaking into the phone. Today most cellular companies transmit in analog signals, but digital signal output is increasing.__1)Representation of data by continuously variable quantities.__2)A continuously variable audio or video signal.

Analog Signal
A signal in which the intelligence is represented by continuously varying quantities.

Anechoic Chamber
A room which simulates a free-space environment by lining all surfaces, including the floor, with absorbing material to reduce reflections of sound or electromagnetic waves. A semi-anechoic chamber has absorbing materials on walls and ceiling. The floor is then reflective to create a ground-plane effect.

Angle of Advance
The angle between a line perpendicular to the axis of the cable and the axis of any one member or strand of the braid.

Angle of Incidence
The angle between an incident ray and the normal to a reflecting surface.

Angle of Refraction
Angle formed between a refracted ray and the normal to the surface. This angle lies in a common plane with the angle of incidence.

Angled physical contact (APC)
A ferrule endface at 8° that minimizes Fresnel reflections when in contact with another APC termination. APC polishes normally have a component reflectance value of 60-70 dB. They are most often used in analog, DWDM, and FTTx installations.

Angular misalignment
The fiber optic cores of a mated pair of connectors are held at an angle, either by mispolish, worn alignment sleeve, or contamination.

Aniline dye
Any of a large number of synthetic dyes derived from aniline, usually obtained from coal tar.

Anionic Polymerization
An ionic polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are anions. (IUPAC)

Anneal
Relief of mechanical stress through heat and gradual cooling. Annealing copper renders it less brittle.

Anneal (Soften)
To subject to high heat with subsequent cooling. When annealing copper, the act of softening the metal by means of heat to render it less brittle.

Annealed Wire
Wire which after drawdown has been heated and slowly cooled to remove the effects of cold working.

Annealing
The process of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired micro-structure or obtaining desired physical, mechanical or other properties.

Annular Conductor
A number of wires stranded in three reversed concentric layers around a core.

Annunciator
A signaling device, usually electrically operated, that gives an audible or visual signal (or both) when energized.

Anode
The electrode in a device that electrons flow out of to return to the circuit. In a battery or other source of direct current the anode is the negative terminal, but in a passive load it is the positive terminal._

Anodize
Formation of a protective insulating oxide layer on a metal by electrolytic action.

Anodizing
An electrolytic process for producing a protective or decorative film on certain metals chiefly aluminum and magnesium.

Anti-Ozonant
A substance which prevents or slows down material degradation due to ozone reaction.

Anti-Rotation Connector
A cylindrical connector design which provides keying or locking provisions to maintain positive orientation for accessory hardware.

Anvil
The part of the crimping die normally stationary, which positions and supports the contact during crimping. Sometimes called "Nest".

Apex offset
As measured by an interferometer, when the radius of curvature of a connector’s endface polish is distorted enough to cause the fiber optic to appear off center.

Appliance Wire & Cable
A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.

Application
A system, with its associated transmission method which is supported by telecommunications cabling.

Application Layer
The uppermost layer (layer 7) of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This layer is concerned with support to the user application and is responsible for managing the communication between applications, e.g. Email, File transfer, etc.

Application-specific optical fiber (ASOF)
Fibers built for specific applications such as those doped with erbium for use in fiber amplifiers or the high numerical aperture fibers used for manufacturing filters and gratings.

Aramid Fibers
A class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is derived from merging of “aromatic polyamide”. They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.

Aramid Yarn
Strength elements that provide tensile strength, support, and additional protection of fiber bundles. It is commonly referred to as Kevlar (a DuPont trademark).

Arc
The discharge from the electrodes of a fusion splicer.

Arc Resistance
The time require for an arc to establish a conductive path in a material.

Architecture
In networks, it is how the components are connected to and operate with one another. The term “network architecture” focuses on how fiber optic system elements communicate including functional organization (services) and configuration (topology and communications). Network architectures are usually designed as to their protocols. B-PON, G-PON, EPON, GEPON, SONET, ATM, Ethernet, etc., are examples of network architectures.

Area of Conductor
The sized of a conductor cross section measured in circular mils, square inches, etc.

Area, Metallic
Sum of the cross-sectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand

Armor
Protective covering, usually metal, used underneath plastic jackets to provide additional environmental protection in harsh environments.

Armored cable
Cable with metallic sheathing or rods placed under or between cable jackets to prevent rodents from damaging the internal cable elements.

Armored Rope
Rope with individual strands spirally wrapped with flat steel wire

Array connector
Typically, connectors with multiple fibers in a small form factor housing, i.e., MPO, MTP, MT-RJ.

Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
A device that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a DWDM system.

As-builts
Drawings that provide accurate depictions of cable running lines, pedestal locations, electronic sites, manholes, marker posts, etc., to aid with the management of cable assets and allow the facilities to be located, protected, maintained, and modified.

AskFOC
Technical resource area to receive answers on fiber optics, connectors, cable assembly, adhesives, lapping film, polymers and specialty products. Can be found at https://focenter.com/askfoc/

Asphalt
Naturally occurring mineral pitch or bitumen.

Assembly
A group of materials or parts, including the adhesive, which has been placed together for bonding or which has been bonded together.

Assembly Adhesive
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together, such as in the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like. Discussion—The term assembly adhesive is commonly used in the wood industry to distinguish such adhesives (formerly called joint glues) from those used in making plywood (sometimes called veneer glues). It is applied to adhesives used in fabricating finished structures or goods, or subassemblies thereof, as differentiated from adhesives used in the production of sheet materials for sale as such, for example, plywood or laminates.

Assembly Time
Also called Open Time. The time period from the application to adhesive until the final application of pressure. This term includes both Closed and Open Assembly Times.

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
A high-speed transmission technology that uses existing copper wires and involved electronic equipment to send digital signals from the telephone company central office to the subscriber’s premises. It sends more information one way than the other, hence it is “asymmetric.”

Asynchronous
Two or more signals sourced from independent clocks, therefore having different frequency and phase relations.

Asynchronous Data Transfer
A method of data transfer in which each alphabetic or numeric character (represented by 7 or 8 bits) is preceded by 'start' and 'stop' bits to delineate the 7/8 bit pattern from the ideal pattern which otherwise occupies the (digital) transmission medium.

Asynchronous Transmission
A data transmission technique controlled by start and stop bits at each end of a character and characterized by an undetermined time interval between characters.

Atactic macromolecule
A regular macromolecule in which the configurational (base) units are not all identical. (IUPAC)

Atactic polymer
A substance composed of atactic macromolecules. (IUPAC)

Attenuation
The loss of optical power, whether caused intrinsically (absorption, scattering, microbends, etc.), or extrinsically by components (connectors, splices, splitters, etc). Expressed as dB or dB/km (with fiber).

Attenuation Coefficient
The reduction in optical power as it passes along a fiber, usually expressed in decibels (dB).

Attenuation Stability
The change in attenuation of a coaxial cable after being subjected to specified temperature cycles and mechanical deformations.

Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (ACR)
The difference between attenuation and crosstalk, measured in dB, at a given frequency. Important characteristic in networking transmission to assure that signal sent down a twisted pair is stronger at the receiving end, after being attenuated, than are a

Attenuator
A device that reduces signal power in a fiber optic link by inducing loss.

Audio Frequency
The range of frequencies audible to the human ear. Usually 2- - 20,000 Hz.

Austenitic Types
Stainless steels that have high ductility, low yield stress and relatively high ultimate tensile strength, when compared to typical carbon steel. Added alloys (such as Nickel and Chrome) help increase corrosion resistance, among other properties

Authentication
The process used by the wireless carriers to verify the identity of a mobile station.

Automatic protection switching (APS)
Utilizing optical monitoring equipment, a network can be automatically switched over to a secondary network when the original network experiences a higher than normal loss or becomes inoperable.

Automatic test equipment (ATE)
Test equipment that is computer programmed to perform measurements on a device without changing the test setup.

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)
AVI is the automatic identification of vehicles through the use of readers installed in toll booths or gates and RF transponders attached to or stored inside vehicles.

Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)
A feature AVI that allows users to immediately locate commercial vehicles and fleets to reduce off-time and vehicle misuse. See Radiomobile division for more information on AVL.

AUTOTEST
A series of tests performed by a LAN Cable Tester activated by the AUTOTEST key. The content of a test series and the test limits are predefined by the selection of a Standard (e.g. Category 6), or a cable manufacturer’s test suite, or may be constructed by the test unit’s user.

Avalanche photodiode (APD)
A photodiode that takes advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrent to convert one photon to multiple electrons.

AVD Circuits
Alternate voice/data circuits

Average power
The average over time of a modulated signal.

AWG Equivalent
The American Wire Gauge round-conductor number that is used to designate a flat conductor with an equal cross-sectional area.

Axial Displacement
The incremental difference between an initial position and a final position resulting from a force applied along the axis of a component.

Axial ray
A ray passing through the axis of the optical waveguide without any internal reflection.

B & S Gauge
Standard for Brown & Sharpe Gauge. The wire diameter standard is same as AWG.

B Carrier
The wireline cellular carrier, usually the local telephone company, which operates on the frequencies of 869 to 894 MHz.

B-Block Carrier
A 30-MHz personal-communications services carrier serving a major trading area in the 1870-to-1885 MHz frequency range paired with the 1954-to-1965-MHz range.

B-stage
An intermediate stage in the reaction of certain thermosetting resins in which the material softens when heated and swells when in contact with certain liquids, but may not entirely fuse or dissolve. The resin in an uncured thermosetting adhesive is usually in this stage.

Back Mounted (rear mounting)
When a connector is mounted from the inside of a panel or box with its mounting flange inside the equipment.

BACK REFLECTION
Light reflected from the cleaved or polished end of a fiber caused by the difference of the refractive indices of air andglass. Back Reflectance is typically 4% of the incident light. It is expressed in dB relative to incident power.

Back Reflection (Fiber Optic)
A measure of the percentage of power reflected back by a discontinuity in a fiber optic line. It is expressed in dB.

Back reflection, optical return loss
Light reflected from the cleaved or polished end of a fiber caused by the difference of refractive indices of air and glass. Typically 4% of the incident light. Expressed in dB relative to incident power.

Back-Mounted (Rear Mounting)
A connector mounted from the inside of a panel or box with its mounting flange inside the equipment.

Back-Stay
Used to support a boom or mast: or that section of a main cable, as on a suspension bridge, cable-way, etc., leading from the tower to the anchorage

Backbone
The cabling used to connect entrance facilities, crossconnects, telecommunications closets, and equipment rooms. The backbone may consist of either interbuilding and/or intrabuilding cabling.

Backend Network
A local area network that connects computers’ input/output systems to shared storage devices. They may also be used for high data rate inter-computer data transfer.

Backplane Panels
An interconnection panel into which PC cards or other panels can be plugged. These panels come in a variety of designs ranging from a PC motherboard to individual connectors mounted in a metal frame. Panels lend themselves to automated wiring.

Backreflection
The loosely-used term covers optical return loss (ORL) for spans, reflectance for components, and Fresnel reflectance.

Backscatter coefficient
The ratio of the optical pulse power (not energy) at the OTDR output to the backscatter power at the near end of the fiber (z=0). This ratio is inversely proportional to the pulse width, because the optical pulse power is independent. It is expressed in dB.

Backscattering
The scattering of light in a fiber back toward the source, used to make OTDR measurements. Bandwidth: The range of signal frequencies or bit rate within which a fiber optic component, link or network will operate.

Backshell
Any device added to the rear (wiring side) of a connector to enhance the connector's operational characteristics.

Backshell Mold
A mold used to form a covering over the backshell of a connector after it is connected to a cable.

Bag molding
A method of molding or bonding involving the application of fluid pressure, usually by means of air, steam, water, or vacuum, to a flexible cover which, sometimes in conjunction with the rigid die, completely encloses the material to be bonded.

Bakelite
A polymer produced by the condensation of phenol and formaldehyde.

Balance
Balance is the ratio of the differential signal output at either end of any pair to a common mode

Balanced Circuit
A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground.

Balanced Line
A cable having two identical conductors which carry voltages opposite in polarity and equal in magnitude with respect to ground.

Balanced Twisted Pair Cable
A cable consisting of one or more metallic symmetrical cable elements (twisted pairs or quads).

Balun
A device for matching impedance between a balanced to unbalanced line, usually twisted-pair and coaxial cable.

Band
A range of optical spectrum allocated based on optical amplifiers. Six bands are specified by the ITU: O (original), E (enhanced), S (short), C (conventional), L (long), and U (ultra). These cover the optical spectrum from 1260 nm to 1675 nm.

Band Marking
A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification.

Banded Cable
Two or more cables banded together by stainless steel strapping.

Bandmarking
A circumferential color band applied to an insulated conductor at regular intervals for identification.

Bandwidth
A characterization of the information caring capacity of a multimode optical fiber. It is expressed in terms of frequency and is often normalized to a unit length (e.g., MHz-km). The frequency range over which the connector or device can operate without degradation of performance. Also the information carrying capacity of digital systems.

Bank Wire
An insulated wire used for the interconnection of selector switches in automatic telephone exchanges.

Bare Conductor
A conductor having no covering. A conductor with no coating or cladding on the copper.

Barrel Chamfer
Bevel at the end of the conductor barrel for easier entry of the conductor. (MIL-STD)

Barrel Conductor
The section of the terminal, splice or contact that accommodates the stripped conductor. (MIL-STD)

Barrel Insulation
The section of the terminal, splice or contact that accommodates the conductor insulation. (MIL-STD)

Barrel-Packed
Method of coiling into a fiber drum for shipment.

Barrier
A partition of electrically non conductive material which increases the electrical path between adjacent electrical circuits or an electrical circuit from ground.

Barrier Seal
The seal preventing the passage of moisture or gases through the insulator and the gap between insulator and center conductor or outer conductor of a connector or adapter.

Base Material
The metal from which the connector, contact, or other piece part accessory is made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.

Base Meta
The metal from which the connector, contact or other metal accessory is made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.

Base Metal
Metal from which the connector components are made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited. Also called Basic Metal.

Base Station
The fixed transmitter/receiver device that a mobile radio transceiver establishes a communication link with in order to gain access to the public-switched telephone network.

Baseband
A network in which the entire bandwidth of the transmission medium is used as a single digital signal. Unlike broadband, no modulation techniques are used.

Baseband Signaling
Transmission of a digital or analog signal at its original frequencies, i.e., a signal in its original form, not changed by modulation.

Baseband Video
An application that defines transmission characteristics up to 862 MHz.

Basic Conductor Load
The limiting conductor-load per unit length assumed for the purposes of design.

Basic Link
A testing configuration that appeared in older editions of the ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Standard. It has been replaced by Permanent Link test configuration in the 568-B Standard that replaced 568-A. See PERMANENT LINK.

Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
The simplest form of network access available on the ISDN (integrated services digital network). The BRI comprises 2B + D channels for carriage of signaling and user information.

Basic Trading Area (BTA)
A service area designed by Rand McNally and adopted by the Federal Communications Commission to promote the rapid deployment and ubiquitous coverage of personal communications services. BTA’s generally cover a city and its surrounding area. They are a component of a major trading area. There are 493 BTA’s in the US.

Basis Metal
Metal from which the connector components are made and on which one or more metals or coatings may be deposited.

Batch
The manufactured unit or blend of two or more units of the same formulation and processing.

Battery Cable
A single conductor cable, insulated or uninsulated, used for carrying current from batteries to the point power is needed.

Baud
The most basic unit of data transmission speed, one baud represents one signal state change per second. It is often confused with bits per second (bps) because they were at one time very similar. By using current data compression and modulation techniques, many times the baud rate in bits per second can be achieved.

Bayonet
A locking prong and slot interconnect device. The mechanical latching mechanism for the ST-type connector.

Bayonet Coupling
A quick coupling device for plug and receptacle connectors, accomplished by rotation of a cam operating device designed to bring the connector halves together.

Bayonet fiber-optic connector (BFOC)
The formal name for the ST connector, a specific slotted twistlock connector with 2.5-mm ferrule.

BCH Code
Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Code

Bead-rod model
A model simulating the hydrodynamic properties of a chain macromolecule consisting of a sequence of beads, each of which offers hydrodynamic resistance to the flow of the surrounding medium and is connected to the next bead by a rigid rod which does not. The mutual orientation of the rods is random. (IUPAC)

Bead-spring model
A model simulating the hydrodynamic properties of a chain macromolecule consisting of a sequence of beads, each of which offers hydrodynamic resistance to the flow of the surrounding medium and is connected to the next bead by a spring which does not contribute to the frictional interaction but which is responsible for the elastic and deformational properties of the chain. The mutual orientation of the springs is random. (IUPAC)

Beaded Coax
Coaxial cable with a dielectric consisting of beads made of various materials.

Beam splitter
A passive device that uses optical lenses with reflective coatings to control the split ratio and divide an optical beam into two or more beams.

Bedding
A layer of material applied to a cable immediately below the armoring.

Bell Wire
Insulated copper wire for making doorbell and thermostat connections in homes.

Belled Mouth (Bellmouth)
The flared or wide entrance of a terminal splice or contact barrel to permit easier insertion of the conductor.

Bellmouth
The raised portion at the front and/or back of the wire barrel crimp that provides a gradual entrance and exit for the wire strands without causing damage.

Belt
Number of layers of insulation on a conductor, or number of layers of jacket on a cable.

Belted-Type Cable
Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors.

Bend insensitive fiber (BIF)
Single-mode fibers that have been modified to demonstrate reduced bend radius characteristics without attenuation changes. Specified in the ITU-T G.657 standard.

Bend loss
Increased attenuation due to macrobends (curvature of fiber) or microbends (small distortions in the fiber) coupling light energy from the fiber core to the cladding.

Bend Radius
Radius of curvature that a fiber optic or metallic cable can bend without any adverse effects.

Bending loss
Loss in fiber caused by stress on the fiber bent around a restrictive radius. Bit-error rate (BER): The fraction of data bits transmitted that are received in error.

Bending Stress
Stress imposed on wires of a wire rope by bending

Beryllium Copper
A relatively expensive contact material with properties superior to brass or phosphor bronze. It is used for contact applications requiring repeated extraction and reinsertion because of its resistance to fatigue at high operating temperatures.

Beta Format
A video recording format generally used in home recording.

Bias current
The steady current applied to a laser diode to overcome its threshold current.

Biconic
A phenolic-bodied, threaded, spring-loaded, non-keyed connector with a cone-shaped alignment area.

Biconical Antenna
A broadband dipole antenna used to measure and produce electric fields from approximately 30 MHz to 300 MHz.

Bidirectional (Bidi)
Operating in both directions over a single fiber.

Bidirectional transceiver
A device that sends information in one direction and receives information from the opposite direction.

Bifilar
A winding made non-inductive by winding together (as one wire) two wires carrying current in opposite directions.

Bifurcated Contact
A flat spring contact with lengthwise slotting which is used in a printed circuit edge connector. (MIL-STD)

Billion Conductor Feet (BCF)
A quantity derived by multiplying the number of conductors in a cable by the amount of cable. Usually used to indicate plant capacity or an annual requirement.

Bilog Antenna
A combination of biconical and log periodic antenna with an automatic crossover network with a frequency range from 26MHz to 2 GHz.

Bimetallic Wire
A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). It can include wire with a steel core clad wire, or plated or coated wire.

Binder
Spirally served tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place.

Binder (adhesives)
In adhesive compounds , a component of an adhesive composition that is primarily responsible for its mechanical strength and adhesion.

Binding Post
A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position.

Bir-Directional
Measuring the DUT from both ends, must use Dual MTJ.

Birefringence
The refraction of light in two slightly different directions to form two rays; the phenomenon can be used to locate stress in a transparent material.

BIT
Binary Digit. The smallest unit of data (and most basic) for data communications. It can have a value of a one (mark) or a zero (space).

Bit Error Rate (BER)
A measure of quality of a digital transmission line, either quoted as a percentage, or more usually as a ratio, typically 1 error in 10E8 or 10E9 bits carried. The lower the number or errors, the better quality the line.

Bit error rate tester (BERT)
Test equipment that measures the bit error rate (BER) of digital transmission systems.

Bit rate
A unit of measure for digital transmission speeds expressed in bit per second (b/s).

Blister
An elevation of the surface of a substrate, somewhat resembling in shape a blister o