FIBER OPTIC CENTER GLOSSARY
There are currently 199 names in this directory beginning with the letter A.
30-MHz personal-communications-services provider serving a major trading area in the frequency block of 1850 to 1865 MHz paired with 1930 to 1945 MHz.
An early stage in the preparation of certain thermosetting resins, in which the material is still soluble in certain liquids, and fusible.
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance.
A material which is adhesive resistant and applicable as a non-sticking surface coating; release agent.
A measure of ability of a wire, wire covering or material to resist surface wear or damage by mechanical means.
The total resistance offered by a device in an alternating current circuit due to inductive and capacitive effects, as well as the direct current resistance .
A test in which voltage, temperature, etc., are increased above normal operating values to obtain observable deterioration in a relatively short period of time. The plotted results give expected service life under normal conditions.
A set of laboratory conditions to simulate in a short time the effects of natural weathering. Most adhesives are generally not subjected to the conditions that are normally considered under weathering tests.
Additional stress imposed on a wire rope due to increasing the velocity of the load
The half-angle of the cone within which all incident light is totally internally reflected by the fiber core. For graded index fibers, acceptance angle is a function of position on the entrance face of the core.
In a data processing system, any of the techniques available to end users for movement of data between main storage and an input/output device or channel. These techniques are most commonly a part of the operating system.
Mechanical devices such as back-shells, cable clamps or strain reliefs which are attached to connectors to make up the total connector assembly.
(1) A retractile cable with a series of equally-spaced transverse folds. (2) A connector contact with a Z shaped flat spring to permit high deflection without overstress.
Acetate (cellulose acetate)
A transparent film which is used for various reasons in tape backings; the primary characteristic is that of being more moisture resistant than cellophane.
A very volatile and flammable solvent that is particularly useful for cleaning metal substrates.
A synthetic polymer with excellent aging characteristics that can be used as either a single component adhesive, coating or saturant, depending upon composition.
A chemical additive used to initiate the chemical reaction in a specific chemical mixture .
In an alternating current, a component in phase with the voltage. The working component as distinguished from the idle or wattless component.
An active device is a device that requires electrical power. One type is those that convert signals between electrical and optical formats such as lasers, LEDs, and photodiodes. Active devices also can manipulate light, such as optical amplifiers and modulators.
Active optical cable (AOC)
A fiber optic cable that has been preterminated with an external electrical endface, thereby removing the termination process. The electrical endfaces can be manufactured with most module formats. The most common module formats are the SFP and HDMI interfaces, but DVI, VGA, SFP+, and QSFP+ interfaces also can be provided.
In an AC circuit, the pressure which produces a current, as distinguished from the voltage impressed upon the circuit.
Ad Hoc Cabling
Cabling scheme where different types of cabling components from different vendors are linked together to form a cabling system.
A device that enables any or all of the following a) different sizes or types of plugs to mate with one another or to fit into a telecommunications outlet/connector; b) the rearrangement of leads; c) large cables with numerous wires to fan out into smalle
A mechanical media termination device designed to align and join fiber optic connectors. Often referred to as a coupling, bulkhead, or interconnect sleeve.
Add/drop multiplexer (ADM)
A mid-span electronic element that provides optoelectric/electro-optic conversion to add, drop, or multiplex photonic signals.
1) A chemical reaction in which simple molecules are linked together to form long chain molecules; 2) A chain reaction in which monomers with carbon-carbon double bonds are converted to polymers.
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may be chemical or mechanical in nature .
Adhesion (adhesive) failure
Rupture of an adhesive bond in which the separation appears visually to be at the adhesive/adherend interface.
An increase in the peel adhesion value of a pressure-sensitive tape after it has been allowed to dwell on the applied surface.
A substance used to improve bonding of the adhesive to the substrate. (Compare coupling agent and primer.) Discussion—The adhesion promoter may be added to an adhesive formulation or applied to the substrate.
Adhesion to backing
The bond produced by contact between a pressure-sensitive adhesive and the tape backing when one piece is applied to the back of another piece of the same tape.
Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action.
Adhesion between surfaces that are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion.
Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables.
A pressure-sensitive adhesive which is pulled away from the tape and remains on the surface to which the tape was applied.
Location at which two adherends are held together with a layer of adhesive. (See also bond )
Lining the melts and flows inside a sleeve filling any voids in between the substrate and the sleeve
The transfer of adhesive from its normal position on the tape to the surface to which the tape was attached, either during unwind or removal.
The locus of fracture occurring in an adhesively-bonded joint resulting in a loss of load-carrying capability.
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together such as the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like.
An adhesive that is apparently dry to the touch and which will adhere to itself instantaneously upon contact; also called contact bond adhesive or dry bond adhesive.
Group of adhesives which show "instant" cure properties and bond to a wide variety of substrates. Cure is by contact with alkaline materials. Weakly alkaline materials, such as water, cause the cure to start.
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
Adhesive, Foamed – An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
An adhesive, the apparent density of which has been decreased substantially by the presence of numerous gaseous cells dispersed throughout its mass. Same as cellular adhesive.
Adhesive, Heat activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky or fluid by application of heat or heat and pressure to the assembly.
Adhesive, Hot melt
An adhesive that is applied in a molten state and forms a bond on cooling to a solid state.
Adhesive, Intermediate temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 31°-99°C (87°-211°F).
Adhesive, Pressure sensitive
A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains permanently tacky. Such a material will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.
Adhesive, Room temperature setting
An adhesive that sets in the temperature range of 20°-30°C (68°-86°F).
Adhesive, Separate application
A term used to describe an adhesive consisting of two parts, one part being applied to one substrate and the other part to the other substrate and the two brought together to form a joint.
Adhesive, solvent activated
A dry adhesive film that is rendered tacky just prior to use by application of a solvent.
Any conductor next to another conductor either in the same multi-conductor cable layer or in adjacent layers.
The method for labeling, identification, documentation and usage needed to implement moves, additions and changes of the telecommunications infrastructure.
A location at which communications circuits are administered; that is, rearranged or rerouted by means of cross connections, interconnection, or information outlets.
The part of a premises distribution system that includes the distribution hardware components where you can add or rearrange circuits. These components include cross connects, interconnects, information outlets, and their associated patch cords and plugs. Also called "administration points". See also Cross Connect and Information Outlets (IO).
The measure of the ease with which an alternating current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.
Advanced Intelligent Networks (AIN)
Systems that allow a wireless user to make and receive phone calls while roaming in areas outside the user’s “home” network.
A type of installation in which the cable is connected to poles or towers by means of clamps or other attachment hardware.
Aging Stability Test
The test used to determine the flexibility of a cable after temperature cycling.
Air blown fiber (ABF)
An installation technique developed by British Telecom where micro ducts or “pipe cables” are installed, and then optical fibers or fiber bundles are blown into the cable with spans reaching 10,000 feet.
A telephone outside plant cable construction for aerial and duct installation in which the insulated conductors in the cable core are surrounded by air.
Air Core Cable
A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier.
Air handling plenum
A space within a building that is designed for the movement of environmental air, e.g., a space above a suspended ceiling or below an access floor.
The first polish of a ferrule or termini after the fiber has been cleaved. The lapping film is passed over the connector endface in the air to polish the fiber stub just above the ferrule endface.
Air Spaced Coaxial Cable
One in which air is essentially the dielectric material. A spirally wound synthetic filament, beads, or braided filaments may be used to center the conductor.
Denotes applications peculiar to aircraft and missiles or other systems designed for operation primarily within the earth's atmosphere. (MIL-STD)
Strands, cords and wire ropes made of special strength wire primarily for aircraft controls and miscellaneous uses of Aircraft Industry
Time spent talking on a cellular phone. This is usually billed to the subscriber on a per-minute basis.
An appliance for mating and holding two connector ferrules in alignment. Also known as a C-clip.
Aliphatic resin glue
Yellow glues which provide more grab for shorter clamp times, and offer better water resistance and heat resistance than traditional white glues.
All-optical network (AON)
A network that uses only optical components to produce, direct, condition, control, and connect optical signals.
A cable in which all interstices between conductors are filled with rubber compound.
A mechanical device shaped like alligator jaws used as a temporary connection on the sod of interconnections wire.
The designation of a band of frequencies for a specific radio service or services. The Federal Communications Commission and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration are responsible for frequency allocations in the US.
A mixture of two or more metals combined to achieve properties, such as a lower melting point or greater strength, that the individual metals do not possess.
A message on a digital output display containing letters, “alphas”, and numbers, “numerics”.
A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube.
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying.
A copolymer consisting of macromolecules comprising two species of monomeric units in alternating sequence. (IUPAC)
Alternating Current (AC)
Electric current that continually reverses its direction. It is expressed in cycles per second (hertz or Hz).
The voltage developed a cross a resistance or impedance through which alternating current is flowing.
An aluminum wire or group of wires not suitably insulated to carry electrical current.
Aluminum Oxide Film (ÅngströmLap ®)
When diamond film is not needed, like in many multimode applications, aluminum oxide is recommended. Some
The atmospheric conditions surrounding a given item. Normally in terms of factors which influence or modify, such as temperature, humidity, etc.
Temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc. which exist in the area surrounding the bond, normally room temperature, atmospheric pressure, daylight, etc.
The temperature of the medium surrounding an object. Generally a lower temperature than the temperature at which the cable is operating.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The official American standards body through which standards are published and various other standards committees are accredited.
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
An organization that tests materials and attempts to set standards on various materials for industry.
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
A standard system for measuring wire gauge primarily used in the United States.
The maximum current an insulated wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding either the insulation or jacket material limitations. (Same as Current Carrying Capacity.)
Amps/Amperes/Ampacity/Rated Amperage -measurement of the flow rate of electricity. If you think in terms of water through a hose, amperage would be a measure of water volume flowing through the hose.
A measurement of electrical current or amount of electric charge per second in a circuit. Frequently shortened to Amp. Its symbol is the letter A but in formulas it is sometimes expressed as the letter I._
The magnetic intensity at any point near a current carrying conductor can be compute on the assumption that each infinitesimal length of the conductor produces at the point of an infinitesimal magnetic density. The resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum of the contributions of all the elements of the conductor.
Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE)
The ratio of the optical power at the center of the laser line width to the optical power at a given distance, as measured using an optical spectrum analyzer with a set resolution bandwidth.
In adhesives, a bonding method that uses its own chemical reaction to complete the adhesion.
An adhesive that is kept in the uncured state by oxygen, as in air, and that cures in the absence of oxygen when exposed to metal ions, especially copper or iron.
The traditional method of transmitting voice signals where the radio wave is based on electrical impulses which occur when speaking into the phone. Today most cellular companies transmit in analog signals, but digital signal output is increasing.__1)Representation of data by continuously variable quantities.__2)A continuously variable audio or video signal.
A room which simulates a free-space environment by lining all surfaces, including the floor, with absorbing material to reduce reflections of sound or electromagnetic waves. A semi-anechoic chamber has absorbing materials on walls and ceiling. The floor is then reflective to create a ground-plane effect.
Angle of Advance
The angle between a line perpendicular to the axis of the cable and the axis of any one member or strand of the braid.
Angle of Refraction
Angle formed between a refracted ray and the normal to the surface. This angle lies in a common plane with the angle of incidence.
Angled physical contact (APC)
A ferrule endface at 8° that minimizes Fresnel reflections when in contact with another APC termination. APC polishes normally have a component reflectance value of 60-70 dB. They are most often used in analog, DWDM, and FTTx installations.
The fiber optic cores of a mated pair of connectors are held at an angle, either by mispolish, worn alignment sleeve, or contamination.
Any of a large number of synthetic dyes derived from aniline, usually obtained from coal tar.
An ionic polymerization in which the kinetic-chain carriers are anions. (IUPAC)
Relief of mechanical stress through heat and gradual cooling. Annealing copper renders it less brittle.
To subject to high heat with subsequent cooling. When annealing copper, the act of softening the metal by means of heat to render it less brittle.
Wire which after drawdown has been heated and slowly cooled to remove the effects of cold working.
The process of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired micro-structure or obtaining desired physical, mechanical or other properties.
A signaling device, usually electrically operated, that gives an audible or visual signal (or both) when energized.
The electrode in a device that electrons flow out of to return to the circuit. In a battery or other source of direct current the anode is the negative terminal, but in a passive load it is the positive terminal._
An electrolytic process for producing a protective or decorative film on certain metals chiefly aluminum and magnesium.
A cylindrical connector design which provides keying or locking provisions to maintain positive orientation for accessory hardware.
The part of the crimping die normally stationary, which positions and supports the contact during crimping. Sometimes called "Nest".
As measured by an interferometer, when the radius of curvature of a connector’s endface polish is distorted enough to cause the fiber optic to appear off center.
Appliance Wire & Cable
A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.
A system, with its associated transmission method which is supported by telecommunications cabling.
The uppermost layer (layer 7) of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This layer is concerned with support to the user application and is responsible for managing the communication between applications, e.g. Email, File transfer, etc.
Application-specific optical fiber (ASOF)
Fibers built for specific applications such as those doped with erbium for use in fiber amplifiers or the high numerical aperture fibers used for manufacturing filters and gratings.
A class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is derived from merging of “aromatic polyamide”. They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.
Strength elements that provide tensile strength, support, and additional protection of fiber bundles. It is commonly referred to as Kevlar (a DuPont trademark).
In networks, it is how the components are connected to and operate with one another. The term “network architecture” focuses on how fiber optic system elements communicate including functional organization (services) and configuration (topology and communications). Network architectures are usually designed as to their protocols. B-PON, G-PON, EPON, GEPON, SONET, ATM, Ethernet, etc., are examples of network architectures.
Area of Conductor
The sized of a conductor cross section measured in circular mils, square inches, etc.
Protective covering, usually metal, used underneath plastic jackets to provide additional environmental protection in harsh environments.
Cable with metallic sheathing or rods placed under or between cable jackets to prevent rodents from damaging the internal cable elements.
Typically, connectors with multiple fibers in a small form factor housing, i.e., MPO, MTP, MT-RJ.
Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
A device that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a DWDM system.
Drawings that provide accurate depictions of cable running lines, pedestal locations, electronic sites, manholes, marker posts, etc., to aid with the management of cable assets and allow the facilities to be located, protected, maintained, and modified.
Technical resource area to receive answers on fiber optics, connectors, cable assembly, adhesives, lapping film, polymers and specialty products. Can be found at https://focenter.com/askfoc/
A group of materials or parts, including the adhesive, which has been placed together for bonding or which has been bonded together.
An adhesive that can be used for bonding parts together, such as in the manufacture of a boat, airplane, furniture, and the like. Discussion—The term assembly adhesive is commonly used in the wood industry to distinguish such adhesives (formerly called joint glues) from those used in making plywood (sometimes called veneer glues). It is applied to adhesives used in fabricating finished structures or goods, or subassemblies thereof, as differentiated from adhesives used in the production of sheet materials for sale as such, for example, plywood or laminates.
Also called Open Time. The time period from the application to adhesive until the final application of pressure. This term includes both Closed and Open Assembly Times.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
A high-speed transmission technology that uses existing copper wires and involved electronic equipment to send digital signals from the telephone company central office to the subscriber’s premises. It sends more information one way than the other, hence it is “asymmetric.”
Two or more signals sourced from independent clocks, therefore having different frequency and phase relations.
Asynchronous Data Transfer
A method of data transfer in which each alphabetic or numeric character (represented by 7 or 8 bits) is preceded by 'start' and 'stop' bits to delineate the 7/8 bit pattern from the ideal pattern which otherwise occupies the (digital) transmission medium.
A data transmission technique controlled by start and stop bits at each end of a character and characterized by an undetermined time interval between characters.
A regular macromolecule in which the configurational (base) units are not all identical. (IUPAC)
The loss of optical power, whether caused intrinsically (absorption, scattering, microbends, etc.), or extrinsically by components (connectors, splices, splitters, etc). Expressed as dB or dB/km (with fiber).
The reduction in optical power as it passes along a fiber, usually expressed in decibels (dB).
The change in attenuation of a coaxial cable after being subjected to specified temperature cycles and mechanical deformations.
Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (ACR)
The difference between attenuation and crosstalk, measured in dB, at a given frequency. Important characteristic in networking transmission to assure that signal sent down a twisted pair is stronger at the receiving end, after being attenuated, than are a
Stainless steels that have high ductility, low yield stress and relatively high ultimate tensile strength, when compared to typical carbon steel. Added alloys (such as Nickel and Chrome) help increase corrosion resistance, among other properties
Automatic protection switching (APS)
Utilizing optical monitoring equipment, a network can be automatically switched over to a secondary network when the original network experiences a higher than normal loss or becomes inoperable.
Automatic test equipment (ATE)
Test equipment that is computer programmed to perform measurements on a device without changing the test setup.
Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI)
AVI is the automatic identification of vehicles through the use of readers installed in toll booths or gates and RF transponders attached to or stored inside vehicles.
Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)
A feature AVI that allows users to immediately locate commercial vehicles and fleets to reduce off-time and vehicle misuse. See Radiomobile division for more information on AVL.
A series of tests performed by a LAN Cable Tester activated by the AUTOTEST key. The content of a test series and the test limits are predefined by the selection of a Standard (e.g. Category 6), or a cable manufacturer’s test suite, or may be constructed by the test unit’s user.
Avalanche photodiode (APD)
A photodiode that takes advantage of avalanche multiplication of photocurrent to convert one photon to multiple electrons.
The American Wire Gauge round-conductor number that is used to designate a flat conductor with an equal cross-sectional area.
The incremental difference between an initial position and a final position resulting from a force applied along the axis of a component.