FIBER OPTIC CENTER GLOSSARY

View: Glossary, Acronyms, Military Specifications for Connectors

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There are 278 names in this directory beginning with the letter P.
Packet
A data unit of variable length used in communications protocols such as Ethernet and IP. Packets allow some flexibility by allowing more data to be sent without breaking it up into pieces and then re-assembling it at the receiver, in turn reducing overhead.

Packet switching
The transmission of packetized data through a network. Each packet has information linking it to the rest of the total message or file as well as the destination address. This form of communication is efficient because each packet can take a different route if necessary to maximize throughput.

Packet Switching Network
A network constructed to move data packets. An X.25 network is an example of a packet switching network.

Packing Fraction
The ratio of active cross-sectional area of fiber core, or cores, to the total end surface of the fiber or fiber bundle.

Paint Line
The line between a tape masked surface and a painted or otherwise treated surface.

Pair
Two wires forming a single circuit, held together by twisting, binding or a common jacket. Also known as a balance transmission line.

Paired Cable
Cable in which all conductors are arranged in color-coded pairs usually twisted around each other and then surrounded by a sheath.

Pairing
The union of two insulated single conductors through twisting.

Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ)
The capability of a camera to move and scan the field of view. Pan refers to side-to-side movement, tilt refers to up/down movement, and zoom refers to the camera’s ability to zoom in or out on objects.

Panel
The side or front of a piece of equipment, usually metal, on which connectors are mounted.(MIL-STD)

Panel Mount
A connector designed to be fixed to a panel by means of screws or mounting nuts.

Panel Seal
A seal preventing the passage of moisture or gases through the gap between the mounting hole of the panel and the connector body of the fixed connector.

Parallel
A construction in which two or more conductors are laid parallel and surrounded and separated by an insulating material.

Parallel Cable
Two or more cables used to share the current in heavily loaded power circuits which permits the use of smaller conductors.

Parallel Digital
The processing and transmission of digital information in parallel information sets.

Parallel Heating
Radio Frequency Press configuration in which RF current is conducted along the glue lines in edge-gluing presses. The flow of the RF current is parallel with the glue lines.

Parallel Pair
A duplex construction of two insulated conductors laid parallel and then covered overall with a braid or jacket.

Parallel Splice
A parallel splice is a device for joining two or more conductors in which the conductors ie parallel and adjacent. See Lap Joint.

Parallel Stripe
A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor.

Parallele Data
Multiple bits of data transmitted each on its own line simultaneously.

Parasitic Capacitance
The capacititive leakage across a component such as a resistor inductor, filter, isolation transformer or optical isolator that adversely affects high-frequency performance.

Parity Check
The addition of a bit to a character to aid in error checking.

Part 15
A Federal Communications Commission ruling which defines the parameters for use of the industrial-scientific-medical bands in the US (such as low-power output, spread spectrum, non-interference, etc.)

Passive
A component that requires no electrical power to operate, i.e., optical splitters, wavelength division multiplexers, filters, circulators, and optical attenuators.

Passive dispersion compensator
A passive component used to compensate the chromatic dispersion of an optical path. Can use dispersion compensating fiber or Bragg filters.

Passive optical network (PON)
A point-to-multipoint system, specified by the ITU, IEEE, and SCTE, that is made up of fiber optic cabling, passive splitters and WDMs that distribute an optical signal from the service provider to homes (FTTH) or buildings (FTTB).

Passive Tag
An RF identification transponder that does not have an internal power source. Their energy source is the power emitted from an antenna.

Paste
An adhesive composition having a characteristic plastic-type consistency, that is, a high order or yield value, such as that of a paste prepared by heating a mixture of starch and water and subsequently cooling the hydrolyzed product

Patch Cable
A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to temporarily connect circuits of equipment together. In the IBM Cabling System, a length of Type 6 cable with data connectors on both ends.

Patch Cord
A length of cable with connectors on one or both ends used to join telecommunications links/circuits at the cross-connect .

Patch Cord Cable
Bulk cable used in the manufacture of patch cords.

Patch Panel
Distribution area to rearrange fiber connections and circuits.

Patchcord
A fixed length of cable with like connectors on both ends (or, in the case of a hybrid cable, different connectors). Sometimes called a cable assembly, patch cable or jumper.

Pathway(s)
Designated cable routes and/or support structures in a false floor or ceiling.

Pay-Off
The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin, reel, or other package.

PCT
Passive Component Tester, application that runs on MAP

Peak
The maximum instantaneous value of a varying current or voltage.

Peak Load
Maximum force recorded during a strength test.

Peak Voltage
The maximum instantaneous voltage

Peel adhesion
The force per unit width, typically expressed in oz/in width (US), required to break the bond between a tape and a surface when peeled back usually at 180 degrees at a standard rate and condition. See peel test.

Peel strength
The average load per unit width of bondline required to separate progressively a flexible member from a rigid member or another flexible member.

Peel test
A test of an adhesive or sealant using one rigid and one flexible substrate. The flexible material is folded back (usually 90 or 180 degrees) and the substrates are peeled apart. Strength is usually measured in pounds per inch of width (PLI).

Peening
Permanent distortion of outside wire in a rope caused by pounding

Pendent group
Side group an offshoot, neither oligomeric nor polymeric, from a chain. (IUPAC)

Penetration
The entering of an adhesive into an adherend. Discussion—This property of a system is measured by the depth of penetration of the adhesive into the adherend.

Percent Conductivity
Conductivity of a material expressed as a percentage of that of copper.

Percent moisture content
Percent moisture content is equal to the weight of water divided by the weight of bone dry wood x 100.

Percent Plating
Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as percentage by weight; thus, for the same percentage, as the conductor diameter increases, so does the thickness of the plating.

Percent Solids
The percentage of non-volatile material contained in a liquid.

Percent Volatile
Percentage of a liquid or solid by volume that will evaporate at ambient temperature.

Percentage Conductivity
Conductivity of a material expressed as a percentage of that of copper. Also used to indicate ratio of conductance between the phase conductor and the neutral in power cables.

Periodic copolymer
A copolymer consisting of macromolecules comprising more than two species of monomeric units in regular sequence. (IUPAC)

Periodic copolymerization
A copolymerization in which a periodic copolymer is formed. (IUPAC)

Periodicity
The uniformly spaced variations in the insulation diameter of a transmission cable that result in reflections of a signal, when its wavelength or a multiple thereof is equal to the distance between two diameter variations.

Peripheral Seal
A seal provided around the periphery of connector inserts to prevent the ingress of fluids or contaminants at the perimeter of mated connectors.

Peripheral(s)
Additions to a system, a resource e.g. printer, scanner, etc.

Permanence
Resistance to appreciable changes in characteristics with time and environment.

Permanent link
The transmission path between two mated interfaces of generic cabling, excluding equipment cables, work area cables and cross-connections.

Permanent set
The amount of deformation that remains in a sealant or adhesive after removal of a load.

Permeability
The extent to which a material can be magnetized; often expressed as the parameter relating the magnetic-flux density induced by an applied magnetic-field intensity.

Permeability (magnetic)
The measure of how much better a material is than air as a path for magnetic lines of force. Air is assumed to have a permeability of 1.

Permittivity
The ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with dielectric between the electrodes to the capacitance when air is between the electrodes. Also called Permittivity and Specific Inductive Capacity (SIC).

Permittivity Relative
Synonym term for relative dielectric constant.

Peroxide
A molecule with an unstable -O-O- bond (Example: HOOH)

Perpendicular Heating
Radio Frequency Press configuration in which RF current is conducted through a plywood panel resulting in mass heating. The flow of current is perpendicular to the glue lines.

Personal Communications Services (PCS)
Federal Communications Commission terminology for two-way, personal, digital wireless communications systems.

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A portable computing device that is capable of transmitting data. PDAs can be used for paging, data messaging, electronic mail, receiving stock quotations, personal computing, facsimile, and as a personal electronic organizer.

Personal Handyphone System (PHS)
Japan’s designation for its digital cordless telephony standard.

Pertaining to a device that responds to optical power, emits or modifies optical radiation, or utilizes optical radiation for its internal operation.

Phase
A particular stage or point of advancement in an electrical cycle. The fractional part of the period through which the time has advanced, measured from some arbitrary point. Usually expressed in electrical degrees where 360 degrees represent one cycle.

Phase Shift
Change in phase of a voltage or current after passing through a circuit or cable.

Phase Stability
Variation of the electrical length of a cable that can result from temperature or mechanical stress due to bending or torsion.

Phenolic resin
A thermosetting resin. Usually formed by the reaction of a phenol with formaldehyde.

Phosphor Bronze
This strong and relatively hard alloy is used to fabricate metal parts and springs. Phosphor bronze is resistant to corrosion.

Photodetector
An electro-optic device that transforms light energy into electrical energy.

Photodiode
A semiconductor that converts light to an electrical signal, used in fiber optic receivers.

Photon
A quantum of electromagnetic radiation, a unit of light. Light can be viewed as a series of photons.

Photonic integrated circuit (PIC)
A collection of photonic components monolithically integrated to perform a function.

Physical Contact (Fiber Optic)
Abbreviated as PC, this is a design feature of fiber optic connectors, where the mating contacts' faces are in contact and under pressure provided by springs, resulting in lower loss.

Physical contact (PC)
Refers to the endface polish of a ferrule. Designed to lower reflections by changing the spherical or angle at the end of a ferrule and its internal fiber. Variations include PC, super PC (SPC), ultra PC (UPC), and angled PC (APC).

Physical Cure
Cure by applied heat or evaporation. Discussion -- Physically curing adhesives are already present in their final chemical state upon application.

Physical Layer
Layer 1 of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. The physical layer protocol is the hardware and software in the line terminating device which converts the databits needed by the datalink layer into the electrical pulses, modem tones, optical signals or other means which will transmit the data.

Physical State
The condition of a material – solid, liquid or gas at room temperature.

Physical Topology
Physical cabling layout i.e. ring, bus, star wired etc.

PIC Code
Pre-subscribed/Primary Inter-LATA Carrier Code

Pick
Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage.

Pick-up roll
A spreading device where the roll for picking up the adhesive runs in a reservoir of adhesive.

Picks Per Inch
The number of times the carriers in a braid cross over each other in the same direction along the longitudinal axis for each inch of length.

Pico
One-millionth of one-millionth (10-12).

Picocell
A cell site for a personal-communications-services network that is somewhat smaller than a microcell and often used to provide service within large buildings and malls.

Picofarad (pF)
One trillionth of a farad. A unit capacitance usually used to designate capacitance unbalance between pairs and capacitance unbalance of the two wires of a pair to ground. (abbreviation pf)

Pigtail
A fiber optic connector that is terminated to one end of an optical fiber cable. A short length of optical fiber, permanently fixed to a component, used to couple power between the component and a transmission fiber.

Pigtail Orientation
A pigtail may be approximately perpendicular to the axis through the center of the coil of a cordset, and this is referred to as a dropped pigtail or perpendicular pigtail. A pigtail may be approximately parallel to the axis through the center of the coil and this is referred to as a turned out pigtail or an axial pigtail.

Pigtail Wire
Fine stranded, extra flexible, rope lay lead wire attached to a shield for terminating purposes.

Pin
A conductor on a plug or connector.

Pin and Sleeve
Common term in reference to an IEC60309 device Outbound Link.

Pin Contact
A contact having an engagement end that enters the socket contact. (MIL-STD) A male type contact, usually designed to mate with a socket or female contact. It is normally connected to the “dead” side of a circuit.

PIN diode
Positive intrinsic negative diode, a type of photodiode used to convert optical signals in a receiver. Can be used with both analog and digital systems.

Pinholes
Small holes visible on the surface of soldered joints, which generally indicate the presence of a larger void within the joint. Typically caused by the generation of gas during solidification due to presence of salts and water. Sometimes called blowholes.

Pitch
(1) In flat cable, the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors. (2) The nominal center-to-center distance of adjacent conductors. (When the conductors are of equal size and thier spacing is uniform , the pitch is usually measured from the reference edge of the adjacent conductors.)

Pitch Diameter
Diameter of a circle passing though the center of the conductors in any layer of a multi-conductor cable.

Pitting
An unacceptable polishing condition usually caused by the contamination of the lapping film from a combination of fiber optic and grit particles.

Plain Conductor
A conductor consisting of only one metal.

Plain old telephone service (POTS)
Basic telephone service, dial tone without special features.

Plain Weave
A weave used on woven cables. Threads between the wires act as binders and give the cable lateral stiffness and linear flexibility. Also called Standard and Square Weave.

Planar lightwave circuit (PLC)
A technology that enables photons to pass through a wafer structure in much the same way they do through fiber. It has become an accepted technology for WDM systems, largely in the form of multiplexer/demultiplexer modules based on arrayed waveguide gratings.

Planar waveguide
A waveguide formed on the surface of an optically flat material where the area of propagation has a high refractive index and guides light in the same manner as optical fiber. When utilizedin couplers or splitters, the waveguide is divided from a single input into multiple outputs.

Planetary Cabler
A cabling machine whose payoff spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved about one another so the wire will not kink as it is twisted.

Planetary Twister
A twisting machine whose payoff spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved about one another so the wire will not kink as it is twisted.

Plastic
High polymeric substances, including both natural and synthetic products, but excluding the rubbers that are capable of flowing under heat and pressure.

Plastic Clad Silica (Fiber Optic)
A fiber structure where the cladding around the core is a soft plastic, abbreviated PCS.

Plastic Deformation
Change in dimensions under load that is not recovered when the load is removed.

Plastic Fiber
An optical fiber made of plastic alone.

Plastic optical fiber (POF)
An optical fiber type in which both the core and cladding are made from plastic. Their transmission is typically much poorer than glass fiber, and their lowest losses are in the visible region. GI-POF is the high bandwidth version using a graded index core.

Plastic-clad silica fiber
A fiber composed of a silica glass core with a transparent plastic cladding.

Plasticity
A property of adhesives that allows the material to be deformed continuously and permanently without rupture upon the application of a force that exceeds the yield value of the material.

Plasticizer
A material incorporated in an adhesive to increase its flexibility. The addition of the plasticizer may cause a reduction in melt viscosity, lower the temperature of the second-order transition, or lower the elastic modulus of the solidified adhesive.

Plastisol
A physical mixture of resin (usually vinyl) compatible plasticizers and pigments. Mixture requires fusion at elevated temperatures in order to convert the plastisol to a homogeneous plastic material.

Plate Current Meter
An electrical meter placed in the grid circuit of a RF generator to measure electrical current.

Plated Through Hole
A hole through a Printed Circuit Board that has been electroplated and into which a lead is placed and soldered for electrical and mechanical connection.

Plating
The overlaying of a thin coating of metal on metallic components to improve conductivity, provide for easy soldering or prevent rusting or corrosion. (MIL-STD)

Plenum
The air handling space such as that found above drop-ceiling tiles or in raised floors. It is also the most stringent fire code rating for indoor cables.

Plenum Cable
Cable approved by Underwriters Laboratories for installation in plenums without the need for conduit.

Plug
A device used for connecting wires to a jack. It is typically used on one or both ends of equipment cords or on wiring for interconnects or cross connects.

Plug Connector
An electrical fitting with pin, socket or pin and socket contacts, constructed to be affixed to the end of a cable, conduit, coaxial line cord or wire for convenience in joining with another electrical connector and not designed to be mounted on a bulkhead, chassis or panel. (MIL-STD)

Ply
The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread.

Point
An electrical contact used for testing.  Each pin of the test connectors of the tester can be considered a point.  Likewise each connector pin on the DUT or mating connectors can be considered a point.

Point of presence (POP)
The physical location where a long-distance carrier terminates lines before connecting to the local exchange company, another carrier, or directly to a customer.

Point to Point Wiring
An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points.

Point-to-multipoint (P2MP)
A star topology with optical splitters for PON systems in which an OLT is optically linked to multiple ONTs through entirely passive means.

Point-to-point (P2P)
A topology in which all fiber links are from one transmitter to one receiver. Branching can be done at an intermediate point via an active device located anywhere on the network, including the CO or a curb-side enclosure. For FTTx installations, it is typically used in active Ethernet.

Point-to-Point Wiring
An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points.

Poise
Measure of viscosity (in cgs units).

Poke Home Contact
Term applied to a male or female contact to which a wire has been permanently affixed prior to the assembly of the contact into the insert. A registered trade name of Amphenol.

Polarity
In electricity, the quality of having two oppositely charged poles, one positive one negative. 

Polarization
Mechanical arrangement of keyways, inserts or grooves in a connector shell or insert that allows connectors of the same configuration to be used without the danger of interconnection to the wrong mating connector. Also called Keying

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)
Typical single-mode fibers support two perpendicular polarizations of the original transmitted signal, which may travel at different speeds and arrive at different times. The average difference in arrival times of the two polarization modes, normalized with length, is referred to as PMD.

Polarization Slot
A slot in the edge of a printed board that is used to assure the proper insertion and location of the board in a mating connector. (See also "Keying Slot" )

Polarize
The arrangement of mating connectors such that the connector can be mated in only one way. (MIL-STD)

Polarized
A plug and connector formed in a way that only allows proper connection.

Polarized dispersion loss (PDL)
The difference in dB between the maximum and minimum values of loss (attenuation) due to variation of the polarization states of light propagating through a device. The ITU defines PDL as polarization dependent loss, the maximum variation of insertion loss due to a variation of the state of polarization (SOP) over all SOPs.

Polarizing Pin, Key or Keyway
A device incorporated in a connector to accomplish polarization. (MIL-STD)

Polishing
Act of smoothing ends of fibers to an optically smooth finish, generally using abrasive.

Polishing (Fiber Optic)
The act of smoothing ends of fibers to an "optically smooth" finish, generally using abrasives. Optically smooth surfaces allow maximum transmission of light between fibers at connections, and minimize coupling loss.

Polishing paper
See lapping film.

Polishing puck
A fixture manufactured to hold the fiber optic connector ferrule perpendicular to a lapping film surface while polishing the fiber optic endface.

POLL
In LAN applications, it is a query to a node looking for information to be transferred on the network.

Polyaddition
A polymerization in which the growth of a polymer chain proceeds by addition reactions between molecules of all degrees of polymerization, not accompanied by the formation of low-molar-mass by-product(s). (IUPAC)

Polyamide
A polymer formed by the reaction of a diamine and a diacid. Nylons are commercial polyamides characterized by toughness, solvent resistance and sharp melting point.

Polybutadiene
A type of synthetic rubber often blended with other synthetic rubbers to improve their properties.

Polychloroprene
Chemical name for Neoprene. A rubber-like compound used for jacketing where wire and cable will be subject to rough usage, moisture, oil, greases, solvents and chemicals. May also be used as low insulating material.

Polycondensation
a polymerization in which the growth of a polymer chain proceeds by condensation reactions between molecules of all degrees of polymerization accompanied by the formation of low-molar-mass by-products(s). The growth steps are expressed by P_x+P_y -> P_x+y + L {x} element of {1, 2, ... ?}; {y} element of{1, 2, ...?} where P_x and P_y denote chains of degree of polymerization x and y, respectively, and L a low-molar-mass by-product. In a polycondensation where the total amounts of the monomers are present from the beginning of the polymerization, the average degree of polymerization increases with conversation of reactive groups. (IUPAC)

Polyelectrolyte molecule
a macromolecule which in an ionising solvent may dissociate to give ions. (IUPAC)

Polyerm
A material of high molecular weight formed by polymerization of lower molecular weight molecules.

Polyester
Polyethylene terephthalate which is used extensively in the production of a high strength moisture resistant film used as a cable core wrap (see Mylar). A resin formed by the reaction between a dibasic acid and a hydroxy alcohol. Polyethylene terephthalate, used extensively as a moisture resistant cable conductor wrap.

Polyethylene (PE)
A thermoplastic used to jacket aerial and direct buried cables.

Polyhalocarbon
A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

Polymer
A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic, rubber or elastomer. A giant molecule formed when hundreds or thousands of small monomer molecules bond to each other to form chains or networks

Polymer Distribution Graph
A graph that shows the relative amounts of chains of different lengths during the progression of a polymerization

Polymer-solvent interaction
The sum of the effects of all intermolecular interactions between polymer and solvent molecules in solution that are reflected in the Gibbs and Helmholtz energies of mixing. (IUPAC)

Polymerization
Chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules.

Polymers
Substance made up of many units such as polyethylene, polystyrene, etc.

Polyolefin
A family of thermoplastics based upon the unsaturated hydrocarbons known as olefins. When combined with butylene or styrene polymers, they form compounds such as polyethylene and polypropylene.

Polypropylene
A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having higher softening point (temperature); excellent electrical properties.

Polystyrene
A polymer commonly used in packaging.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
This is the most thermally stable and chemically resistant of all carbonaceous insulating compounds. It is unaffected by sunlight, moisture, and practically all chemicals. Temperature range is -90° to 250° C and electrical properties are very constant over the temperature range and a wide range of frequencies.

Polyurethane
Broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance. Can be solid or cellular form.

Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) glue
Any glue consisting chiefly of polyvinyl acetate polymer. This category includes both traditional white glues and yellow aliphatic resin glues. Although PVA glues can vary in strength, flexibility, water resistance, heat resistance and sandability, they are generally non-toxic. All PVA glues are prone to “creep” or slowly stretch under long term loads, and are not recommended for structural applications.

Polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive
A latex adhesive in which the polymeric portion comprises polyvinyl acetate, copolymers based mainly on polyvinyl acetate, or a mixture of these, and which may contain modifiers and secondary binders to provide specific properties.

Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl-chloride which may be rigid or elastomeric, depending on specific formulation.

Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
A dielectric fluoropolymer that is resistant to corrosive chemicals and radiation. Used to jacket stranded cable.

Porosity
Multiple air voids in an insulation or jacket wall.

Port
The cable terminations in the equipment system at which various types of communications devices, switching equipment, and other devices are connected to the transmission network.  1) A functional unit of a node through which data can enter or leave a data network.  2) In data communications, that part of a data processor which is dedicated to a single data channel for the purpose of receiving data from or transmitting data to one or more external, remote devices.  3) An access point for data entry or exit.

Portable Power Cable
Flexible, all rubber insulated for hard usage. Some cables have shielded conductors (metallic or non-metallic) and can have neoprene sheath overall.

Ports
A computer interface capable of transmitting and or receiving information.

Positioner
A device that is attached to a crimping tool and locates the contact in the correct location for crimping. It is usually interchangeable with other positioners. (MIL-STD)

Post cure
A treatment (normally involving heat) applied to an adhesive assembly following the initial cure to modify specific properties.

Post Insulate
To insulate a connection after assembly.(MIL-STD)

Postcure
After the initial cure, to further treat an adhesive by time or temperature, or both, to modify specific properties.

Pot life
The useable life of a synthetic resin mix after a catalyst or hardener has been added.

Potentiometer
A variable resistor often used to control a circuit. 

Potting
1) The permanent sealing of the cable end of a connector with a compound or material to exclude moisture and/or provide a strain relief.(MIL-STD)   2) The sealing of a cable termination or other component with a liquid which thermosets into an elastomer.

Potting Compound
A material, usually organic , tha is used for the encapsualtion of components and wires.

Potting Cup
An accessory which, when attached to the rear of a plug or receptacle, provides a pouring form for potting the wires at the wire entry end of the connector.

Potting Form
Not preferred. See Mold, Potting, Electrical Connector.

Power
The rate at which energy is transferred.

Power budget
The difference (in dB) between the transmitted optical power (in dBm) and receiver sensitivity (in dBm).

Power Cables
Cables of various sizes, construction, and insulation, single or multi-conductor, designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment.

Power Contact
Type of contact used in multi-contact connectors to support the flow of rated current.

Power Factor (Fp)
The ratio of resistance to impedance. The ratio of an actual power of an alternating current to apparent power. Mathematically the cosine of the angle between the voltage applied and the current resulting.

Power Handling Capacity
The average power which a cable can handle without exceeding its maximum operating temperature.

Power Loss
The difference between the total power delivered to a circuit, cable or device and the power delivered by that device to a load.

Power meter
Test equipment that measures the optical power (dBm) and attenuation (dB) in a fiber optic connector, fiber optic cable, or fiber optic system.

Power Ratio
The ratio of power appearing at the load to the input power. Expressed in dB, it is equal to 10 log10 (P2/P1) where P1 is input power and P2 is the power at that load.

Power Sum
A method of testing and measuring crosstalk in multi-pair cables that accounts for the sum of crosstalk affecting a pair when all other pairs are active. This is the only method of specifying crosstalk performance that is suited to cables with more than four pairs.

Power Sum Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio (PSACR)
A ratio expressed in dB, determined by subtracting the insertion loss from the POWER SUM NEAR-END CROSS TALK LOSS.

Power Sum Equal Level Far-End Crosstalk (PSELFEXT)
A computation of the unwanted signal coupling from multiple transmitters at the near-end into a pair measured at the far-end relative to the received signal level on that same pair.

Power Sum Near-End Crosstalk Loss (PSNEXT)
A computation of the unwanted signal coupling from multiple transmitters at the near-end into a pair measured at the near-end.

Praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA)
A high gain (30 dB), high saturation (+20 dBm) amplifier that operates in the O-band.

Pre-Bond
Stranded wire which has been fused, topcoat tinned, or overcoat tinned.

Pre-bond treatment
Synonym for surface preparation.

Pre-Insulate
The insulation of a connector prior to assembly of the contact or termination of the conductor.(MIL-STD)

Pre-Tinned
Solder applied to either or both the contact and conductor prior to soldering. (MIL-STD)

Pre-Tinned Solder Cup
Solder cups whose inner surfaces have been pre-coated a small amount of tin lead solder.

Pre-Wiring
The practice of concealing station wire or cable in the walls of buildings while they are being constructed. It is cheaper and more satisfactory for the owner.

Precious Metal
One of the relatively scarce and valuable metals; gold, silver and the platinum group metals.

Preece Test
A recognized standard of testing the galvanized coating on wire

Preform
A glass structure from which an optical fiber waveguide can be drawn.

Preformed Strand
Strand in which the wires are permanently shaped, before fabrication in the strands, to the helical form they assume in the strand

Preformed Wire Rope
Wire rope in which the strands are permanently shaped, before fabrication into the rope, to the helical form they assume in the wire rope

Premises
Defined as the subscriber’s home or place of business. In a multiple dwelling unit, each apartment is counted as one.

Premises Distribution System (PDS)
The transmission network inside a building or group of buildings that connects various types of voice and data communication devices, switching equipment, and information management system together, as well as to outside communications networks. It includes the cabling and distribution hardware components and facilities between the point where building wiring connects to the outside network lines, back to the voice and data terminals in to office or other work locations. The system consists of all the transmissions media and electronics, administration points, connectors, adapters, plugs, and support hardware between the building's side of the network interface and the terminal equipment required to make the system operational.

Preproduction test
A test or series of tests conducted by (1) an adhesive manufacturer to determine conformity of an adhesive batch to established production standards, (2) a fabricator to determine the quality of an adhesive before parts are produced, or (3) an adhesive specification custodian to determine conformance of an adhesive to the requirements of a specification not requiring qualification tests.

Presentation Layer
Layer 6 of the OSI model. Responsible for identifying the syntax of the data being transmitted.

Press Fit Contact
An electrical contact which can be pressed into a hole in an insulator, printed board, with or without plated through-holes, or a metal plate.

Pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA)
A viscoelastic material which in solvent-free form remains tacky and will adhere instantaneously to most solid surfaces with the application of very slight pressure.

Pressure-sensitive article
A combination of a pressure-sensitive adhesive with a backing or with a backing and release liner. Discussion—Examples of such articles include tapes, labels, stickers and handspreads; transfer failure --in characterizing the locus of failure in a pressure-sensitive article, separation at the interface of adhesive and backing.

Pressurization
The use of pressurized gas or dry air inside Air Core cables to prevent the entry of water at faulty splices or minor sheath cracks. It can also trigger an alarm when major faults occur and can assist in locating the damaged areas.

Prestretching
Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that the constructional stretch is largely removed

Prevailing Torque
Measurement of average force needed to provide continuing movement, after unseating, through first full turn.

Primary
The transformer winding which receives the energy from a supply circuit.

Primary Coating
The plastic coating applied directly to the cladding surface of the fiber during manufacture to preserve the integrity of the surface.

Primary Insulation
The first layer of non-conductive material applied over a conductor, whose prime function is to act as electrical barrier (sic…insulation).

Primary Protection
The minimum protection required on all exposed facilities to comply with NEC requirements.

Primary Rate Interface (PRI)
ISDN standard interface comprising 23 B + 1 D channel for North America, and 30 B + 1 D Channel for Europe. See Basic Rate Interface (BRI) and Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). The North American 1.544 Mb/s T1 (23B+D) or European 2.048 interface (PRI) Mb/s E1 (30B+D) ISDN interface typically used to connect ISDN PBXs to the public ISDN.

Primary Wiring
A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point electrical connections.

Primer
A coating applied to a surface, prior to the application of an adhesive, to improve the performance of the bond.

Primer, Surface
A surface primer is a coating that changes the character of a surface so that an adhesive or coating will adhere to it more effectively.

Priming
Applying a coating to improve the performance of the bond; in pressure sensitive tapes, coating the backing on the adhesive side with a thin layer of adhesive-like material, which serves as a bonding agent between the adhesive and the backing.

Printability
The ability of a tape to accept and hold a printed legend, and especially to resist offset of the printing when rewound into a roll after printing.

Printed Circuit
This term is in common use with at least two meanings: 1) A generic term to describe a printed board produced by any of a number of techniques used to fabricate electrical interconnect systems. 2) A circuit obtained by printing and comprising printed components.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
An epoxy glass and metal composite on which circuits are etched and to which active, passive and hardware components are attached. Also called a PCB or PC board.

Printed Wiring
A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point electrical connections.

Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
A private switching system usually serving an organization, such as a business or government agency, and located on the customer's premises. It switches calls both inside a building or premises and outside to the telephone network, and can sometimes also provide access to a computer from a data terminal.

Profile alignment system (PAS)
A core alignment technique for fusion splices in which light is injected at right angles. A CCD camera detects the fiber’s refractive inlet profile in the X and Y axes for optimization.

Profile dispersion
Difference between maximum refractive index in the core and maximum refractive index in the cladding.

Programming
Ability to select various circuit patterns by interconnecting appropriate contacts on one side of a connector plug or panel.

Proof Load
A load applied in performance of a proof test. Typically 40-60% of breaking strength

Proof Test
Non-destructive test to verify construction and workmanship of a wire rope assembly

Propagation
Delay time required for an electrical wave to travel between two points on a transmission line. The step an addition polymerization in which a monomer is added to the growing polymer chain

Propagation Delay
Propagation Delay is the time it takes for a signal to propagate from one end of a conducting pair in cabling, cables or connecting hardware to the opposite end of that pair. (also see DELAY SKEW).

Propagation Rate
The speed at which electricity travels in a transmission medium. Expressed as a percentage of the speed of light that is represented as a lowercase "c".

Propagation Time
Time required for an electrical wave to travel between two points on a transmission line.

Proportional limit
The maximum stress that a material is capable of sustaining without significant deviation from proportionality of stress to strain.

Proprietary Networks
Networks that are not designed, installed to any standard based guidelines and do not relate specifically to any relevant standard.

Proprietary Systems
Systems that are not Standards specific and therefore inoperable with standards based equipment.

Protocol
A set of rules governing all aspects of communicated data. A standardized set of communications conventions enabling the orderly and accurate transfer of data between stations.

Protocol Analyzer
A device capable of capturing, monitoring, decoding and analyzing various communications protocols. A high level troubleshooting and analysis tool.

Prototype
A model suitable for use in the complete evaluation of form, design and performance.

Protrusion
According to the TIA, the fiber optic is either polished even with the endface or has a positive or negative protrusion, i.e., “sticks out” or is recessed.

Proximity Effect
Non-Uniform current distribution over the cross-section of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor.

Pseudo-cooligomer
An irregular oligomers, the molecules of which are derived from one species of monomer but for which one finds it convenient to use co-oligomer terms. (IUPAC)

Pseudo-copolymer
An irregular polymer, the molecules of which are derived from one species of monomer but for which one finds it convenient to use copolymer terms. Where appropriate, adjectives specifying the types of "copolymer" may be applied to "pseudo-copolymer". The term statistical pseudo-copolymer, for instance, may be used to describe an irregular polymer in the molecules of which the sequential distribution of configurational units obeys known statistical laws. (IUPAC)

Public Branch Exchange (PBX)
A telephone switching system designed to serve as a control and to route calls in large multi-phone environments, such as offices. Most PBXs can handle custom features for users’ specific telecom requirements.

Public Network Interface
A point of demarcation between public and private network. In many cases the public network interface is the point of connection between the network provider's facilities and the customer premises cabling.

Public Switched Telphone Network (PSTN)
A landbased telecommunications system where cellular calls are routed.

Pull Box
A device to access a raceway used to facilitate placing of wire or cables.

Pull Cord/Pull Wire
Cord or wire placed within a raceway and used to pull wire and cable through the raceway.

Pull point
A physical location where optical cable can be accessed and pulled, reducing friction and damage, and allowing for longer installed spans.

Pull Strength
The maximum pulling force that can be safely applied to a cable without damage.

Pull Tension
The maximum pulling force that can be safely applied to a cable without damage.

Pull-Out Force
Force necessary to separate a conductor from a contact or terminal, or a contact from a connector by exerting a tensile pull. (MIL-STD)

Pulling Eye
A device which may be fastened to the conductor or conductors of a cable or formed by or fastened to the wire armor and to which a hook or rope may be directly attached in order to pull the cable into or from a duct.

Pulling Tension
The amount of pull, measured in pounds, placed on a cable during installation.

Pulse
A current or voltage which changes abruptly from one value to another and back to the original value in a finite length of time. Used to describe one particular variation in a series of wave months.

Pulse Broadening
An increase in pulse duration resulting in optical dispersion.

Pulse Cable
A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated high voltage pulses without degradation.

Pulse code modulation (PCM)
A coding scheme for converting analog signals into a digital bit stream.

Pulse Spreading
The dispersion of incoming optical signals along the length of an optical fiber.

Pulse Width
The length of time that the pulse voltage is at the transient level. Electronic pulse widths are usually in the millisecond, microsecond or nanosecond range.

Pulsed Lasers
Lasers that emit energy in a series of short bursts, or pulses, and are inactive between each pulse. They typically deliver several watts of peak power per pulse.

Punch-Down
A method of securing a wire to a wiring terminal. The insulated wire is placed in the terminal groove and pushed down with a special tool. As the wire is seated, the terminal cuts through the insulation to make an electrical connection, and the spring-loaded blade of the tool trims the wire flush with the terminal. Also called Cut-Down.

Punch-Down Block
A device used to terminate and cross-connect premises wiring. (also see also CONNECTING BLOCK)

PUR (Polyurethane)
Thermoplastic polymer used for cables as an extruded jacket. Exhibits extreme toughness and abrasion resistance. It is flexible to below -50°C.

Push/pull
Connector clip or locking device that holds the connector in a socket or interface. Uses a “push then pull” coupling technique. SC, LC, and MPO/MTP are common types of connectors using a push/pull coupling mechanism.

Put-Up
Refers to the packaging of wire and cable. The term itself refers to the quantity of product that is ready to be stored or shipped.

PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)
The material most commonly used for the insulation and jacketing of cable.

Pyrometer
One of several devices designed to measure surface temperature.
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